Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

Environmental Health Research Centre and Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
Tropical biomedicine (Impact Factor: 0.82). 06/2012; 29(2):207-11.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area.

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    ABSTRACT: human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, or pediculosis capitis, is a common health problem in the world. Pediculosis capitis is the most prevalent parasitic infection of children in many countries. This problem remains confined to the scalp. Scalp itching is a common symptom in the infested people to head lice, although infested patients to pediculosis can be asymptomatic. Any pruritus scalp in children should be examined by physicians or entomologists. All of the children that have close contacts should be examined. The people should be treatment when lice or ova observed. There are three fundamental methods that are effective to treatment of pediculosis; topical pediculicides, wet combing and oral therapy. The used pediculicides should be had no hazards and they must be safe to human. We don't recommended spraying or fogging of home with pediculicides. [Sayyadi M, Sayyad S, and Vahabi A. Pediculosis Capitis: A Review Article. Life Sci J Introduction Insects are the biggest classes of Animalia Kingdom. According to scientific findings, 80% of the known animal's specimens in the world are insects (Salehzadeh, 1992; Vahabi et al., 2007). The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer, 1778, is a flat, wingless insect with 3 pairs of legs is an obligate parasite of human which affect millions of people especially schoolchildren around the world in both developed and developing countries (Burgess, 2004; Meinking, 1986; Taplin et al., 1986; Meinking & Taplin, 1990). The insect feed on human blood and live on human hair. Pre-school and elementary children, aged 5-13, and their families are infested most often (Janniger and Kuflik, 1993; Leung et al., 2005). The greater incidence of head louse infestation in school age children could be due to their increased physical contacts with each other and the sharing of objects such as common comb (Vahabi et al., 2012; Vahabi et al., 2013). Pediculus humanus capitis is not a vector of human disease but it is a health problem especially in the poor countries (Angel et al., 2000). Severe itching caused by louse feeding is the first major symptom of a louse infestation. The infection can lead to enormous itchiness, skin inflammation, hives, exudations, lymph node bulges, eczema, scars, hair glue-up to "plica polonica", ending in pain and restlessness especially in children (Alempoor Salemi, 2003; Fathy et al., 2010). There are many factors that lead to increasing of head louse infestation, i.e., poor hygiene, socioeconomic status, lack of medical treatments are some of them (Koch et al,2001 & AL-Shawa, 2008). Historical overview on Pediculosis The story of Pediculosis dates back to biblical times, when Aaron is recorded as having "stretched out his hand with his rod and smote the dust of the earth and it became lice in men and in beast" although lice existed in prehistoric times (Pernet, 1918). Pediculosis as a human problem dates back to the earliest Homo sapiens. Researchers at the Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology used Molecular Clock Analysis (MtDNA) to date the origins of human lice to approximately 72, 000 years ago in Africa. Expansions of lice into other parts of the world follow the expansion of modern man out of Africa approximately 50, 000 years ago. Lice were known to be a health problem severe when the public baths were closed in ancient Egypt (Driver, 1974). Throughout antiquity in Greek and Roman period, was thought that the louse have developed naturally in tumors of the body and afterwards to have flee to the surface (Hebra and Kaposi, 1880). Francesco described the Pediculus pubis in 1668 and Carl De Geer described Pediculus capitis in 1778. The louse would be confused with the scabies mites for many years. Joseph Jakob Plenck (1732-1807) described five kinds of phthiriasis: capitis, pubis, supercilliorum, totius corporis, and intema. In 1842, Wilson wrote a textbook that lice and pediculosis were described in fairly contemporary terms (Wilson, 1857). By 1865, Ferdinand Hebra (1816-1880) had demonstrated that lice could not live in closed cavities (Herba, 1880). The role of lice in typhus and other communicable diseases remained another story and described by Hans Zinsser in his book (Zinsser, 1935). The louse studied by Entomologists through
    Life Science Journal 02/2014; 11(3):26-30. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To help health authorities in adopting the ways to control pollution in the Kashan city and improve public health. Methods In descriptive epidemiologic research, 2 151 students were examined in 23 male and female schools. Their hair was examined for head louse infestation. Demographic data and related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were recorded in the standard questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS statistical software by using Chi-square and fisher's exact tests. Results The prevalence of head louse infestation in students was 0.70%. This survey showed that 0.75% and 0.60% of the students in female and male schools were infected to head louse respectively. Statistical tests showed significant relation between pediculosis and, father's and mother's job, father's and mother's education, previous history of infection, itchy scalp and school health teachers (P<0.05). Conclusions The study indicated that the prevalence of pediculosis wasn't a major concern and health priority in Kashan's schools (2013). However, it was suggested that individual hygiene should be considered as a priority in the city to prevent the increase of infestation incidence, and also measures should be taken to increase the level of knowledge of individuals within the city.
    12/2014; 4(6):500–504. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60616-2
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Head louse infestation is a worldwide public health problem that affects some people mostly school age children. This survey was a descriptive, analytical study that carried out to evaluate and determine the prevalence rate of pediculosis capitis and some associated factors among primary schoolchildren in Bayengan city, Kermanshah Province, Iran. 384 students in 4 schools (164 boys and 220 girls) were selected. For data collection, Random Cluster Sampling Method was used and from each cluster 96 persons were selected. The results and demographic data, was recorded in a questionnaire and then analyzed by SPSS ver. 16. The results of the study showed that 54 students (14.1%) were infested. 8.5% of the boys and 18.2% of the girls were infested to head lice. The most prevalent rate was observed in grade five and the lowest prevalence rate was observed in grade I. There were significant statistical differences between pediculosis capitis and some factors such as sex, level of mother’s education and father’s job (p<0.05). The prevalence rate of head louse infestation in this study was high. The educational system should clarify all of parents from all families to play a more effective role to eliminate head louse infestation among schoolchildren.


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May 16, 2014