Incidence and etiology of new liver lesions in pediatric patients previously treated for malignancy.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the time course, cause, and imaging characteristics of all new liver lesions in pediatric patients with a previously treated malignancy.
Our hospital cancer registry was used to identify patients between 1980 and 2005 who met the following criteria: solid tumor, survival > 2 years after diagnosis, no liver lesions at a posttreatment baseline, and cross-sectional imaging follow-up of > 2 years. Final dictated reports of all cross-sectional imaging examinations including the abdomen were reviewed for any mention of new liver lesions. Positive reports were followed by consensus review of the images and clinical data. Patients were divided into three groups: those with suspected or proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), those with suspected or proven metastases, and those with other lesions. An exact Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the differences between the groups.
Of 967 patients who met the initial inclusion criteria, 273 had adequate follow-up to be included in the study. Forty-six patients (16.8%) developed new liver lesions during the study period, and 14 of those 46 were classified into the FNH group (30.4%) and seven were classified into the metastasis group (15.2%). A significant difference was found in the median time to the development of FNH versus metastasis and other lesions (FNH, 92.9 months; metastasis, 43.2 months; other lesions, 18.5 months; p < 0.0001). A significant difference was also seen in the median length of follow-up between the groups (FNH, 115.6 months; metastasis, 57 months; other lesions, 50.8 months; p = 0.002). The imaging features of the groups also differed.
The most common liver lesion encountered in pediatric patients previously treated for malignancy was FNH, which occurred farther from the time of diagnosis and had different imaging characteristics from both metastases and other liver lesions.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The detection of hepatic nodules, particularly in patients treated for a previous malignancy, raises a diagnostic dilemma. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver is an uncommon, benign tumor in children and must be differentiated from malignant hepatic lesions. The etiology of FNH is obscure, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. FNH may be a reaction to localized vascular abnormalities and circulatory disturbances. The goal of the current study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of FNH in children who had received prior treatment for a malignant tumor. The current retrospective study examined 14 cases of FNH in pediatric patients who previously had been treated for a malignancy. Diagnosis was based on clinical and radiologic findings and was proven histologically in four cases. FNH lesions were discovered by chance during routine examination in 78% of patients. The incidence of FNH was particularly high in the current series (0.45%) compared with the incidence in the general pediatric population. High doses of alkylating agents (e.g., busulfan or melphalan), venoocclusive disease, and liver radiotherapy may be responsible for injury to the vascular endothelium and subsequent localized circulatory disturbances. FNH is characterized by the absence of complications after its detection; therefore, only close follow-up is recommended. FNH appears to be a late complication of an iatrogenic vascular disease in children with a history of malignancy.Cancer 07/2003; 97(12):3107-13. · 5.20 Impact Factor