Ionic liquids dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of irbesartan and valsartan in human urine.
ABSTRACT An environmentally friendly ionic liquids dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of antihypertensive drugs irbesartan and valsartan in human urine samples was developed. The HPLC separations were accomplished in less than 10 min using a reversed-phase C(18) column (250 × 4.60 mm i.d., 5 µm) with a mobile phase containing 0.3 % formic acid solution and methanol (v/v, 3:7; flow rate, 1.0 mL/min). UV absorption responses at 236 nm were linear over a wide concentration range from 50 µg/mL to the detection limits of 3.3 µg/L for valsartan and 1.5 µg/L for irbesartan. The effective parameters on IL-DLLME, such as ionic liquid types and their amounts, disperser solvent types and their volume, pH of the sample and extraction time were studied and optimized. The developed IL-DLLME-HPLC was successfully applied for evaluation of the urine irbesartan and valsartan profile following oral capsules administration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: Background: A simple, precise and sensitive HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous determination of carvedilol and losartan in human plasma and urine samples. The analytes were extracted by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method. A mobile phase of 15 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 4.0)/acetonitrile/2-propanol (70/27.5/2.5, v/v/v) was used to separate the drugs using a Waters(®) ODS column (250 × 4.6 mm) and detected by a UV detector at 222 nm. Results: The developed method is selective for studied drugs possessing a linearity range of 0.1-1.0 and 0.05-0.75 µg/ml, respectively, for losartan and carvedilol with precision <15%. The accuracy is better than 15% and the mean recovery of carvedilol and losartan was 98.9 and 100.2% for plasma and 100.7 and 100.5% for urine samples, respectively. Conclusion: The developed method is applicable for therapeutic drug monitoring and PK analyses.Bioanalysis 12/2012; 4(23):2805-21. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the past 7 years and since the introduction of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), the method has gained widespread acceptance as a simple, fast, and miniaturized sample preparation technique. Owing to its simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and low consumption of organic solvents and reagents, it has been applied for determination of a vast variety of organic and inorganic compounds in different matrices. This review summarizes the DLLME principles, historical developments, and various modes of the technique, recent trends, and selected applications. The main focus is on recent technological advances and important applications of DLLME. In this review, six important aspects in the development of DLLME are discussed: (1) the type of extraction solvent, (2) the type of disperser solvent, (3) combination of DLLME with other extraction methods, (4) automation of DLLME, (5) derivatization reactions in DLLME, and (6) the application of DLLME for metal analysis. Literature published from 2010 to April 2013 is covered.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 11/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel solvents that display a number of unique properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, thermal stability (even at high temperatures), favorable viscosity, and miscibility with water and organic solvents. These properties make them attractive alternatives to environmentally unfriendly solvents that produce volatile organic compounds. In this article, a critical review of state-of-the-art developments in the use of ILs for the separation and preconcentration of bioanalytes in biological samples is presented. Special attention is paid to the determination of various organic and inorganic analytes-including contaminants (e.g., pesticides, nicotine, opioids, gold, arsenic, lead, etc.) and functional biomolecules (e.g., testosterone, vitamin B12, hemoglobin)-in urine, blood, saliva, hair, and nail samples. A brief introduction to modern microextraction techniques based on ILs, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME), is provided. A comparison of IL-based methods in terms of their limits of detection and environmental compatibilities is also made. Finally, critical issues and challenges that have arisen from the use of ILs in separation and preconcentration techniques are also discussed.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor