Lenalidomide enhances anti-myeloma cellular immunity.
ABSTRACT Lenalidomide is an effective therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma that exhibits immunomodulatory properties including the activation of T and NK cells. The use of lenalidomide to reverse tumor-mediated immune suppression and amplify myeloma-specific immunity is currently being explored. In the present study, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on T-cell activation and its ability to amplify responses to a dendritic cell-based myeloma vaccine. We demonstrate that exposure to lenalidomide in the context of T-cell expansion with direct ligation of CD3/CD28 complex results in polarization toward a Th1 phenotype characterized by increased IFN-γ, but not IL-10 expression. In vitro exposure to lenalidomide resulted in decreased levels of regulatory T cells and a decrease in T-cell expression of the inhibitory marker, PD-1. Lenalidomide also enhanced T-cell proliferative responses to allogeneic DCs. Most significantly, lenalidomide treatment potentiated responses to the dendritic cell/myeloma fusion vaccine, which were characterized by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and increased cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated lysis of autologous myeloma targets. These findings indicate that lenalidomide enhances the immunologic milieu in patients with myeloma by promoting T-cell proliferation and suppressing inhibitory factors, and thereby augmenting responses to a myeloma-specific tumor vaccine.
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ABSTRACT: Hybrid cells generated by fusing dendritic cells with tumor cells (DC-TC) are currently being evaluated as cancer vaccines in preclinical models and human immunization trials. In this study, we evaluated the production of human DC-TC hybrids using an electrofusion protocol previously defined for murine cells. Human DCs were electrically fused with allogeneic melanoma cells (888mel) and were subsequently analyzed for coexpression of unique DC and TC markers using FACS and fluorescence microscopy. Dually fluorescent cells were clearly observed using both techniques after staining with Abs against distinct surface molecules suggesting that true cell fusion had occurred. We also evaluated the ability of human DC-TC hybrids to present tumor-associated epitopes in the context of both MHC class I and class II molecules. Allogeneic DCs expressing HLA-A*0201, HLA-DR beta 1*0401, and HLA-DR beta 1*0701 were fused with 888mel cells that do not express any of these MHC molecules, but do express multiple melanoma-associated Ags. DC-888mel hybrids efficiently presented HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes from the melanoma Ags MART-1, gp100, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 as evaluated by specific cytokine secretion from six distinct CTL lines. In contrast, DCs could not cross-present MHC class I-restricted epitopes after exogenously loading with gp100 protein. DC-888mel hybrids also presented HLA-DR beta 1*0401- and HLA-DR beta 1*0701-restricted peptides from gp100 to CD4(+) T cell populations. Therefore, fusions of DCs and tumor cells express both MHC class I- and class II-restricted tumor-associated epitopes and may be useful for the induction of tumor-reactive CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in vitro and in human vaccination trials.The Journal of Immunology 06/2003; 170(10):5317-25. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The DF3/MUC1 transmembrane oncoprotein is aberrantly overexpressed by most human carcinomas. Certain insights are available regarding a role for MUC1 in intracellular signaling; however, no precise function has been ascribed to this molecule. The present results demonstrate that MUC1 expression is up-regulated by oxidative stress and that this response is mediated by activation of MUC1 gene transcription. A role for MUC1 in the oxidative stress response is supported by the demonstration that MUC1 expression is associated with attenuation of endogenous and H2O2-induced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MUC1-dependent regulation of ROS is mediated at least in part by up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) expression. In concert with these findings, we show that the apoptotic response to oxidative stress is attenuated by a MUC1-dependent mechanism. These results support a model in which activation of MUC1 by oxidative stress provides a protective function against increased intracellular oxidant levels and ROS-induced apoptosis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2003; 278(37):35458-64. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although thalidomide (Thal) does not directly induce T-cell activation, it increases proliferation of T cells following CD3 activation. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of a more potent analog of Thal, immunomodulatory drug (IMiD), on T cells. Although IMiD3 does not directly stimulate proliferation of normal donor CD3+ T cells, it significantly costimulates proliferation of CD3+ T cells induced by CD3 ligation (stimulation index [SI], 2.4), immature dendritic cells (DCs; SI, 2.1), and mature DCs (SI, 2.6). T-cell proliferation triggered by DCs was abrogated by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA-4-Ig), and IMiD3 partially overcomes this inhibitory effect. IMiD3 also overcomes the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4-Ig on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and influenza (Flu)-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, as measured by cytokine capture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. IMiD3 did not induce up-regulation of CD28 expression on T cells, or of CD80-CD86 expression on dendritic cells. Importantly, IMiD3 triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of CD28 on T cells, followed by activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a known downstream target of CD28 signaling. These results therefore define the costimulatory mechanism whereby IMiD3 induces T-cell activation and provide the cellular and molecular basis for use of IMiD3 as an adjuvant in immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for multiple myeloma.Blood 04/2004; 103(5):1787-90. · 9.06 Impact Factor