Lenalidomide enhances anti-myeloma cellular immunity
ABSTRACT Lenalidomide is an effective therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma that exhibits immunomodulatory properties including the activation of T and NK cells. The use of lenalidomide to reverse tumor-mediated immune suppression and amplify myeloma-specific immunity is currently being explored. In the present study, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on T-cell activation and its ability to amplify responses to a dendritic cell-based myeloma vaccine. We demonstrate that exposure to lenalidomide in the context of T-cell expansion with direct ligation of CD3/CD28 complex results in polarization toward a Th1 phenotype characterized by increased IFN-γ, but not IL-10 expression. In vitro exposure to lenalidomide resulted in decreased levels of regulatory T cells and a decrease in T-cell expression of the inhibitory marker, PD-1. Lenalidomide also enhanced T-cell proliferative responses to allogeneic DCs. Most significantly, lenalidomide treatment potentiated responses to the dendritic cell/myeloma fusion vaccine, which were characterized by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and increased cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated lysis of autologous myeloma targets. These findings indicate that lenalidomide enhances the immunologic milieu in patients with myeloma by promoting T-cell proliferation and suppressing inhibitory factors, and thereby augmenting responses to a myeloma-specific tumor vaccine.
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ABSTRACT: Although the introduction of stem cell transplantation and novel agents has improved survival, multiple myeloma (MM) is still difficult to cure. Alternative approaches are clearly needed to prolong the survival of patients with MM. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a very promising tool immunologically in MM. We developed a method to generate potent DCs with increased Th1 polarization and migration ability for inducing strong myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss how the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy using DCs can be improved in MM.04/2015; 51(1):1-7. DOI:10.4068/cmj.2015.51.1.1
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ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide activates the immune system, but the exact immunomodulatory mechanisms of lenalidomide in vivo are poorly defined. In an observational study we assessed the impact of lenalidomide on different populations of immune cells in multiple myeloma patients. Lenalidomide therapy was associated with increased amounts of a CD8+ T cell subset, phenotypically staged between classical central memory T cells (TCM) and effector memory T cells (TEM), consequently termed TCM/TEM. The moderate expression of perforin/granzyme and phenotypic profile of these cells identifies them as not yet terminally differentiated, which makes them promising candidates for the anti-tumor response. In addition, lenalidomide-treated patients showed higher abundance of CD14+ myeloid cells co-expressing CD15. This population was able to inhibit both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro and could thus be defined as a yet undescribed novel myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subtype. We observed a striking correlation between levels of TCM/TEM, mature Tregs and CD14+CD15+ MDSCs. In summary, lenalidomide induces both activating and inhibitory components of the immune system, indicating the existence of potential counter-regulatory mechanisms. These findings provide new insights into the immunomodulatory action of lenalidomide.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 04/2014; 177(2). DOI:10.1111/cei.12343 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential for the immune system to target hematological malignancies is demonstrated in the allogeneic transplant setting, where durable responses can be achieved. However, allogeneic transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to graft versus host disease. Cancer immunotherapy has the capacity to direct a specific cytotoxic immune response against cancer cells, particularly residual cancer cells, in order to reduce the likelihood of disease relapse in a more targeted and tolerated manner. Ex vivo dendritic cells can be primed in various ways to present tumor associated antigen to the immune system, in the context of co-stimulatory molecules, eliciting a tumor specific cytotoxic response in patients. Several approaches to prime dendritic cells and overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment have been evaluated in pre-clinical and early clinical trials with promising results. In this review, we summarize the clinical data evaluating dendritic cell based vaccines for the treatment of hematological malignancies.Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 11/2014; 10(11):3125-31. DOI:10.4161/21645515.2014.982993 · 3.64 Impact Factor