Supraspinal antinociceptive effect of apelin-13 in a mouse visceral pain model
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, 222 Tianshui South Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.Peptides (Impact Factor: 2.62). 06/2012; 37(1):165-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2012.06.007
Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is a novel identified neuropeptide whose biological functions are not fully understood. APJ receptor mRNA was found in several brain regions related to descending control system of pain, such as amygdala, hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The present study was designed to determine whether supraspinal apelin-13 may produce antinociceptive effect observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, a model of visceral pain. Apelin-13 not only significantly produced preemptive antinociception at the dose of 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 3 μg/mouse when injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) before acetic acid, but also significantly induced antinociception at a dose of 0.5, 1 and 3 μg/mouse when injected i.c.v. after acetic acid. And i.c.v. apelin-13 did not influence 30-min locomotor activity counts in mice. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of apelin-13 (1 and 3 μg/mouse) significantly decreased the number of writhes, however, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of apelin-13 (10-100 μg/mouse) had no effect on the number of writhes in the writhing test. The specific APJ receptor antagonist apelin-13(F13A), no-specific opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and μ-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride (β-FNA) could significantly antagonize the antinociceptive effect of i.c.v. apelin-13, suggesting APJ receptor and μ-opioid receptor are involved in this process. Central low dose of apelin-13 (0.3 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) could significantly potentiate the analgesic potencies of modest and even relatively ineffective doses of morphine administrated at supraspinal level. This enhanced antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone, suggesting that the potentiated analgesic response is mediated by opioid-responsive neurons.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. INNOVATION/CONCLUSION: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 07/2013; 20(4). DOI:10.1089/ars.2013.5182 · 7.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The apelin receptor (APJ) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor gene family. Neural gene expression patterns of APJ, and its cognate ligand apelin, in the brain implicate the apelinergic system in the regulation of a number of physiological processes. APJ and apelin are highly expressed in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that regulates fluid homeostasis, in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that controls the neuroendocrine response to stress, and in forebrain and lower brainstem regions involved in cardiovascular function. Recently, apelin, synthesised and secreted by adipocytes, has been described as a beneficial adipokine related to obesity, and there is growing awareness of a potential role for apelin, and APJ, in glucose and energy metabolism. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure, expression pattern, and regulation of apelin and its receptor, including the main second messengers and signalling proteins activated by apelin. We also highlight the physiological and pathological roles that support this system as a novel therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in treating conditions relating to altered water balance, stress-induced disorders such as anxiety and depression, and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.Journal of Endocrinology 08/2013; 219(1). DOI:10.1530/JOE-13-0227 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).Peptides 10/2013; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2013.10.001 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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