Seminal plasma induces angiogenic chemokine expression in cervical cancer cells and regulates vascular function.
ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of the leading gynecological malignancies in women. We have recently shown that seminal plasma (SP) can regulate the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-prostaglandin pathway and enhance the growth of cervical epithelial tumours in vivo by promoting cellular proliferation and alteration of vascular function. This study investigated the molecular mechanism whereby SP regulates vascular function using an in vitro model system of HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that SP rapidly enhanced the expression of the angiogenic chemokines, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth regulated oncogene alpha (GRO) in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. We investigated the molecular mechanism of SP-mediated regulation of IL-8 and GRO using a panel of chemical inhibitors of cell signalling. We found that treatment of HeLa cells with SP elevated expression of IL-8 and GRO by transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induction of cyclooxygenase enzymes and nuclear factor kappa B. We investigated the impact of IL-8 and GRO, released from HeLa cells after treatment with SP, on vascular function using a co-culture model system of conditioned medium (CM) from HeLa cells, treated with or without SP, and HUVECs. We found that CM from HeLa cells induced the arrangement of endothelial cells into a network of tube-like structures via the CXCR2 receptor on HUVECs. Taken together our data outline a molecular mechanism whereby SP can alter vascular function in cervical cancers via the pro-angiogenic chemokines, IL-8 and GRO.
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ABSTRACT: Theconnection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection.This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer.Pathology Research International. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Chemoattractant receptors are a family of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) initially found to mediate the chemotaxis and activation of immune cells. During the past decades, the functions of these GPCRs have been discovered to not only regulate leukocyte trafficking and promote immune responses, but also play important roles in homeostasis, development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Accumulating evidence indicates that chemoattractant GPCRs and their ligands promote the progression of malignant tumors based on their capacity to orchestrate the infiltration of the tumor microenvironment by immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal cells. This facilitates the interaction of tumor cells with host cells, tumor cells with tumor cells, and host cells with host cells to provide a basis for the expansion of established tumors and development of distant metastasis. In addition, many malignant tumors of the nonhematopoietic origin express multiple chemoattractant GPCRs that increase the invasiveness and metastasis of tumor cells. Therefore, GPCRs and their ligands constitute targets for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:751392. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1alpha is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1alpha in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1alpha in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results: Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1alpha mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1alpha was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-alpha in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1alpha in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1alpha by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1alpha in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women.Journal of Molecular Signalling. 08/2014;