Use of modified ciclosporin in the management of feline pemphigus foliaceus: a retrospective analysis
ABSTRACT Background - Glucocorticoids as sole therapy for pemphigus foliaceus (PF) in cats are not always successful, and it is common to need additional immunomodulating agents to manage the disease. Hypothesis/Objectives - This retrospective study evaluated the use of modified ciclosporin as an adjuvant or sole immunomodulating drug in cats with PF and compared their response to PF cats managed with chlorambucil. Animals - Fifteen client-owned cats diagnosed with PF that received ciclosporin and/or chlorambucil as part of their treatment and had adequate follow-up to assess treatment response were evaluated. Methods - Records were reviewed from feline PF patients presented between the years of 1999 and 2009. Cats were divided into two treatment groups: those treated with ciclosporin and those treated with chlorambucil. Most cats in both groups also received concurrent systemic glucocorticoids. Each group contained six patients. Three cats were treated with both medications and are discussed separately. Time to disease remission, remission-inducing glucocorticoid dose, maintenance or final glucocorticoid dose, disease response and adverse effects were assessed. Results - There was no significant difference in remission times or disease response between groups. All six patients maintained with ciclosporin for PF management were weaned off systemic glucocorticoids, while glucocorticoid therapy was stopped in only one of the six cats receiving chlorambucil. Conclusions and clinical importance - Modified ciclosporin is effective in the management of feline pemphigus foliaceus and is glucocorticoid sparing.
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ABSTRACT: Prednisone doses of up to 8 mg/kg/day have been used to treat feline pemphigus foliaceus (PF). Oral prednisolone has more favourable pharmacokinetics in cats than prednisone; therefore, lower doses of prednisolone may be effective in treating feline PF. To assess the dose of prednisolone required to induce and maintain remission of PF in cats. Thirty-seven client-owned cats with a diagnosis of PF treated with prednisolone monotherapy for induction of remission. A retrospective analysis of records of a veterinary dermatology referral practice between the years of 1995 and 2013 was carried out. History, clinical signs, cytological and/or histopathological findings, lack of response to antimicrobials, absence of fungal hyphae on periodic acid Schiff staining and/or negative fungal culture and positive response to immunosuppressive therapy were used to confirm the diagnosis. Cats were included in the study if prednisolone was used as the monotherapy induction protocol. Complete remission was achieved within 8 weeks in 97% of cats with a median induction dose of 2 mg/kg prednisolone daily. In cats requiring ongoing treatment, 67% were maintained in remission with prednisolone monotherapy. The median maintenance dose was 1.2 mg/kg/week. In 14% of cats, medication was eventually discontinued. Daily prednisolone at 2 mg/kg is an effective dose for inducing remission of PF in cats. Adverse effects were uncommon with this dose. In a small population, permanent remission may be induced. Secondary bacterial overgrowth and exudate in claw folds resolved in all cases with immunosuppressive therapy; therefore, antimicrobial therapy may be unnecessary.Veterinary Dermatology 10/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1111/vde.12081 · 1.99 Impact Factor