Radiation-induced double-strand breaks require ATM but not Artemis for homologous recombination during S-phase.
ABSTRACT Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by two distinct pathways, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The endonuclease Artemis and the PIK kinase Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), mutated in prominent human radiosensitivity syndromes, are essential for repairing a subset of DSBs via NHEJ in G1 and HR in G2. Both proteins have been implicated in DNA end resection, a mandatory step preceding homology search and strand pairing in HR. Here, we show that during S-phase Artemis but not ATM is dispensable for HR of radiation-induced DSBs. In replicating AT cells, numerous Rad51 foci form gradually, indicating a Rad51 recruitment process that is independent of ATM-mediated end resection. Those DSBs decorated with Rad51 persisted through S- and G2-phase indicating incomplete HR resulting in unrepaired DSBs and a pronounced G2 arrest. We demonstrate that in AT cells loading of Rad51 depends on functional ATR/Chk1. The ATR-dependent checkpoint response is most likely activated when the replication fork encounters radiation-induced single-strand breaks leading to generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA. Together, these results provide new insight into the role of ATM for initiation and completion of HR during S- and G2-phase. The DSB repair defect during S-phase significantly contributes to the radiosensitivity of AT cells.
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ABSTRACT: The cause of increased radiosensitivity in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells may be a defect in their ability to respond to DNA damage rather than a defect in their ability to repair it. Doses of x-radiation that markedly inhibited the rate of DNA synthesis in normal human cells caused almost no inhibition in AT cells and thus less delay during which x-ray damage could be repaired. The radioresistance of DNA synthesis in AT cells was primarily due to a much smaller inhibition of replicon initiation than in normal cells; the AT cells were also more resistant to damage that inhibited chain elongation. AT cells have been reported to undergo less radiation-induced mitotic delay than normal cells, which may cause them to move from G2 phase into mitosis before repair is complete and may result in the increased incidence of chromatid aberrations observed by others. Therefore, AT cells fail to go through those delays that allow normal cells to repair DNA damage before it can be expressed.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1981; 77(12):7315-7. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into single-stranded DNA, triggering ATR-dependent checkpoint signalling and DSB repair by homologous recombination. Previous work has implicated the MRE11 complex in such DSB-processing events. Here, we show that the human CtIP (RBBP8) protein confers resistance to DSB-inducing agents and is recruited to DSBs exclusively in the S and G2 cell-cycle phases. Moreover, we reveal that CtIP is required for DSB resection, and thereby for recruitment of replication protein A (RPA) and the protein kinase ATR to DSBs, and for the ensuing ATR activation. Furthermore, we establish that CtIP physically and functionally interacts with the MRE11 complex, and that both CtIP and MRE11 are required for efficient homologous recombination. Finally, we reveal that CtIP has sequence homology with Sae2, which is involved in MRE11-dependent DSB processing in yeast. These findings establish evolutionarily conserved roles for CtIP-like proteins in controlling DSB resection, checkpoint signalling and homologous recombination.Nature 12/2007; 450(7169):509-14. · 36.28 Impact Factor
Article: Artemis, a novel DNA double-strand break repair/V(D)J recombination protein, is mutated in human severe combined immune deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The V(D)J recombination process insures the somatic diversification of immunoglobulin and antigen T cell receptor encoding genes. This reaction is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (dsb), which is resolved by the ubiquitously expressed DNA repair machinery. Human T-B-severe combined immunodeficiency associated with increased cellular radiosensitivity (RS-SCID) is characterized by a defect in the V(D)J recombination leading to an early arrest of both B and T cell maturation. We previously mapped the disease-related locus to the short arm of chromosome 10. We herein describe the cloning of the gene encoding a novel protein involved in V(D)J recombination/DNA repair, Artemis, whose mutations cause human RS-SCID. Protein sequence analysis strongly suggests that Artemis belongs to the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily.Cell 05/2001; 105(2):177-86. · 32.40 Impact Factor