Article

Bulk-like endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of insulin granules in pancreatic beta cells.

National Key Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Protein & Cell (Impact Factor: 3.22). 06/2012; 3(8):618-26. DOI: 10.1007/s13238-012-2938-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although bulk endocytosis has been found in a number of neuronal and endocrine cells, the molecular mechanism and physiological function of bulk endocytosis remain elusive. In pancreatic beta cells, we have observed bulk-like endocytosis evoked both by flash photolysis and trains of depolarization. Bulk-like endocytosis is a clathrin-independent process that is facilitated by enhanced extracellular Ca(2+) entry and suppressed by the inhibition of dynamin function. Moreover, defects in bulk-like endocytosis are accompanied by hyperinsulinemia in primary beta cells dissociated from diabetic KKAy mice, which suggests that bulk-like endocytosis plays an important role in maintaining the exo-endocytosis balance and beta cell secretory capability.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of secretory granules. beta-cell exocytosis involves SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) proteins similar to those controlling neurotransmitter release and depends on the close association of L-type Ca(2+) channels and granules. In most cases, the secretory granules fuse individually but there is ultrastructural and biophysical evidence of multivesicular exocytosis. Estimates of the secretory rate in beta-cells in intact islets indicate a release rate of approximately 15 granules per beta-cell per second, 100-fold higher than that observed in biochemical assays. Single-vesicle capacitance measurements reveal that the diameter of the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen with the exterior is approximately 1.4 nm. This is considerably smaller than the size of insulin and membrane fusion is therefore not obligatorily associated with release of the cargo, a feature that may contribute to the different rates of secretion detected by the biochemical and biophysical measurements. However, small molecules like ATP and GABA, which are stored together with insulin in the granules, are small enough to be released via the narrow fusion pore, which accordingly functions as a molecular sieve. We finally consider the possibility that defective fusion pore expansion accounts for the decrease in insulin secretion observed in pathophysiological states including long-term exposure to lipids.
    The Journal of Physiology 08/2008; 586(14):3313-24. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. We used the patch-clamp technique, in conjunction with membrane capacitance measurement, fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), and flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+) to study exo- and endocytosis in identified rat corticotrophs. 2. Exocytosis stimulated by depolarization pulses was typically followed by a 'slow' endocytosis that retrieved the membrane with a time constant of approximately 6 s. The efficiency (the endocytosis/exocytosis amplitude ratio) of 'slow' endocytosis was approximately 1.2 at [Ca(2+)](i) < 3 microM and increased to approximately 1.6 at [Ca(2+)](i) > 3 microM. 3. Whole-cell dialysis through a patch pipette did not affect the kinetics and the efficiency of 'slow' endocytosis, but the amplitude of exocytosis was reduced. 4. 'Slow' endocytosis did not require sustained [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and its kinetics was only weakly [Ca(2+)](i) dependent. Our results suggest that 'slow' endocytosis involves a Ca(2+) sensor with a high Ca(2+) affinity (approximately 500 nM). 5. At high [Ca(2+)](i) (> 10 microM), the 'slow' endocytosis was frequently preceded by a 'fast' endocytosis that comprised multiple steps of rapid decrease in membrane capacitance. 6. Neither calmodulin nor calcineurin appeared to be the Ca(2+) sensor for endocytosis because the two forms of endocytosis were not affected by the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (500 microM) or the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A (1 microM) and calcineurin autoinhibitory peptide (1 mg ml(-1)). Ba(2+), a poor activator of calmodulin, could support both forms of endocytosis but slowed the kinetics of 'slow' endocytosis approximately 2-fold. 7. Non-hydrolysable analogues of GTP (GDP-beta-S) and ATP (ATP-gamma-S) also failed to inhibit either form of endocytosis, indicating that neither GTP nor ATP was essential for endocytosis. 8. We suggest that the high Ca(2+) affinity of 'slow' endocytosis may be important for maintaining continuous cycles of exocytosis-endocytosis during sustained adrenocorticotropin secretion in corticotrophs.
    The Journal of Physiology 06/2001; 533(Pt 2):389-405. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are retrieved by more than one mode in central nerve terminals. During mild stimulation, the dominant SV retrieval pathway is classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). During elevated neuronal activity, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) predominates, which requires activation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. We now report that calcineurin dephosphorylates dynamin I in nerve terminals only above the same activity threshold that triggers ADBE. ADBE was arrested when the two major phospho-sites on dynamin I were perturbed, suggesting that dynamin I dephosphorylation is a key step in its activation. Dynamin I dephosphorylation stimulates a specific dynamin I-syndapin I interaction. Inhibition of this interaction by competitive peptides or by site-directed mutagenesis exclusively inhibited ADBE but did not affect CME. The results reveal that the phospho-dependent dynamin-syndapin interaction recruits ADBE to massively increase SV endocytosis under conditions of elevated neuronal activity.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2009; 29(24):7706-17. · 6.91 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from