Rituximab Used Successfully in the Treatment of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
ABSTRACT We report the case of a young woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, without tumor, who was successfully treated with rituximab. Because conventional immunotherapy, including corticosteroids, immunoglobulin (IVIg), and plasma exchange showed little improvement in our patient, we introduced another treatment using rituximab. A week after the first administration of rituximab, her symptoms improved gradually and significantly. This case provides in vivo evidence that rituximab is an effective agent for treating anti-NMDAR encephalitis, even in those cases where conventional immunotherapies have been ineffective. Rituximab should be regarded as a beneficial therapeutic agent for this disease.
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ABSTRACT: We report on a 39-year-old female patient who developed catatonia after there had been schizomanic symptoms in the six months before. At admission the patient exhibited catatonia, a tetraspastic syndrome and focal epileptic seizures. The cranial MRI revealed bilateral subcortical hyperintense lesions which took up contrast agent. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid disclosed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and autochthone oligoclonal bands. In the serum autoantibodies against the NMDA-NR-1 receptor were reproducibly detected. A detailed search for a tumour was negative. In detail, we could exclude a neoplasm of the ovaries which is often present in the paraneoplastic type of anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. Therefore we assume an autoimmune, not paraneoplastic, encephalitis in our patient. The symptoms improved significantly after an immunosuppressive therapy - initially with glucocorticoids followed by rituximab - had been initiated. This case illustrates that an autoimmune encephalitis should be looked for when first psychotic symptoms occur.Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie 03/2013; 81(4). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1335044 · 0.76 Impact Factor
Article: Anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in normal physiological and pathological states in the brain. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion, and psychological disturbances in males and females of all ages. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women, but children are less likely to have tumors. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a neuroimmune syndrome in patients with autoantibodies recognizing extracellular epitopes of NMDAR, and the autoantibodies attenuate NMDAR function through the internalization of NMDAR. Following the initial symptoms of inflammation, the patients show the various symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, psychosis, dyskinesis, decrease in speech intelligibility, and seizures. About half of these patients improved with immunotherapy including high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins is administrated to these patients, but the patients who had no improvement with these therapy require further treatments with rituximab or cyclophosphamide. It is necessary to detect anti-NMDAR antibodies at early stages, because the prognosis of these patients may be improved by early treatment. Recovery is slow, and the patients may have some disturbances in their motor function and cognition. The pathologic mechanism underlying the development of anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been elucidated gradually, but the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Further studies are required to clarify in detail the mechanism underlying anti-NMDA encephalitis and to develop effective treatments.Brain & development 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2013.10.005 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, knowledge about immune-related disorders has substantially increased, especially in the field of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Recent innovations in protein-related microarray technology have enabled the analysis of interactions between numerous samples and up to 20,000 targets. Antibodies directed against ion channels, receptors and other synaptic proteins have been identified, and their causative roles in different disorders have been identified. Knowledge about immunological disorders is likely to expand further as more antibody targets are discovered. Therefore, protein microarrays may become an established tool for routine diagnostic procedures in the future. The identification of relevant target proteins requires the development of new strategies to handle and process vast quantities of data so that these data can be evaluated and correlated with relevant clinical issues, such as disease progression, clinical manifestations and prognostic factors. This review will mainly focus on new protein array technologies, which allow the processing of a large number of samples, and their various applications with a deeper insight into their potential use as diagnostic tools in neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 01/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor