Article

Rescue of growth defects of yeast cdc48 mutants by pathogenic IBMPFD-VCPs.

Laboratory of Functional Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
Journal of Structural Biology (Impact Factor: 3.36). 06/2012; 179(2):93-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsb.2012.06.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT VCP/p97/Cdc48 is a hexameric ring-shaped AAA ATPase that participates in a wide variety of cellular functions. VCP is a very abundant protein in essentially all types of cells and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. To date, 19 different single amino acid-substitutions in VCP have been reported to cause IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia), an autosomal dominant inherited human disease. Moreover, several similar single amino acid substitutions have been proposed to associate with a rare subclass of familial ALS. The mechanisms by which these mutations contribute to the pathogenesis are unclear. To elucidate potential functional differences between wild-type and pathogenic VCPs, we expressed both VCPs in yeast cdc48 mutants. We observed that all tested pathogenic VCPs suppressed the temperature-sensitive phenotype of cdc48 mutants more efficiently than wild-type VCP. In addition, pathogenic VCPs, but not wild-type VCP, were able to rescue a lethal cdc48 disruption. In yeast, pathogenic VCPs, but not wild-type VCP, formed apparent cytoplasmic foci, and these foci were transported to budding sites by the Myo2/actin-mediated transport machinery. The foci formation of pathogenic VCPs appeared to be associated with their suppression of the temperature-sensitive phenotype of cdc48 mutants. These results support the idea that the pathogenic VCP mutations create dominant gain-of-functions rather than a simple loss of functional VCP. Their unique properties in yeast could provide a convenient drug-screening system for the treatment of these diseases.

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    ABSTRACT: VCP/p97 is a hexameric ring-shaped AAA(+) ATPase that participates in various ubiquitin-associated cellular functions. Mis-sense mutations in VCP gene are associated with the pathogenesis of two inherited diseases: inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and front-temporal dementia (IBMPFD) and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These pathogenic VCPs have higher affinities for several cofactors, including Npl4, Ufd1 and p47. In Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control systems, VCP migrates to damaged mitochondria (e.g., those treated with uncouplers) to aid in the degradation of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and to eliminate mitochondria. We showed that endogenous Npl4 and p47 also migrate to mitochondria after uncoupler treatment, and Npl4, Ufd1 or p47 silencing causes defective mitochondria clearance after uncoupler treatment. Moreover, pathogenic VCPs show impaired migration to mitochondria, and the exogenous pathogenic VCP expression partially inhibits Npl4 and p47 localization to mitochondria. These results suggest that the increased affinities of pathogenic VCPs for these cofactors cause the impaired movement of pathogenic VCPs. In adult flies, exogenous expression of wild-type VCP, but not pathogenic VCPs, reduces the number of abnormal mitochondria in muscles. Failure of pathogenic VCPs to function on damaged mitochondria may be related to the pathogenesis of IBMPFD and ALS.
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