Lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease among premenopausal women.
ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to examine the association between lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease.
The Women and Infants Study of Healthy Hearts enrolled 607 mothers who delivered a singleton between 1997 and 2002. In 2007, participating mothers underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness, lumen diameter, adventitial diameter, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations between lactation and subclinical cardiovascular disease.
Compared with mothers who breastfed for 3 or more months after every birth, mothers who never breastfed exhibited a 0.13 mm larger lumen diameter (95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.22) and a 0.12 mm larger adventitial diameter (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.22) in models adjusting for age, parity, birth outcome, sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, family history, gestational weight gain, early adult body mass index, current body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin levels.
Mothers who do not breastfeed have vascular characteristics associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: The accurate quantitation of high density lipoproteins has recently assumed greater importance in view of studies suggesting their negative correlation with coronary heart disease. High density lipoproteins may be estimated by measuring cholesterol in the plasma fraction of d > 1.063 g/ml. A more practical approach is the specific precipitation of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins by sulfated polysaccharides and divalent cations, heparin-Mn(2+) being the most commonly used combination. The present heparin-Mn(2+) procedure was found to be reasonably specific and not often subject to large errors; however, 9% (primarily hypertriglyceridemic samples) of the 966 plasma samples treated with heparin-Mn(2+) had obvious supernatant turbidity, indicating incomplete sedimentation of apoB-associated lipoproteins. Furthermore, 48% of the nonturbid supernates contained more than 1 mg/dl (mean 2.5 mg/dl) of apoB-associated cholesterol when measured by a radial immunodiffusion procedure, indicating slight overestimation of HDL cholesterol. Determination of the extent of the unprecipitated apoB-associated lipoproteins by sensitive radioimmunoassay and of the amount of precipitated high density lipoprotein by radial immunodiffusion assay of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II at various heparin and Mn(2+) concentrations indicated that the usual heparin level (approximately 1.3 mg/ml) was adequate. However, a twofold increase in Mn(2+) concentration to 0.092 M improved precipitation of the apoB-associated lipoproteins without excessive precipitation of high density lipoprotein from plasma. This increased Mn(2+) level also provided improved sedimentation of the apoB-associated lipoproteins from hypertriglyceridemic plasma. Additional observations suggested that, for convenience, the heparin and Mn(2+) can be added simultaneously as a combined reagent, that samples can be incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature before centrifugation, and that turbid supernates from hypertriglyceridemic samples can usually be made free of apoB-associated lipoproteins by centrifugation at 12,000 g for 10 minutes.The Journal of Lipid Research 01/1978; 19(1):65-76. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the assocation between lactation and maternal visceral adiposity among US women who were on average 7 years postpartum. This cross-sectional analysis included 89 women who gave birth between 1997 and 2002, who did not have preeclampsia, prepregnancy hypertension or prepregnancy diabetes, and enrolled in The Women and Infant Study of Healthy Hearts (WISH). Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. History of lactation was self-reported. Visceral adiposity was greater by 36.96 cm(2) (95% CI: 20.92,53.01) among mothers who never breastfed than mothers who breastfed for ≥3 months after every birth, even after adjustment for age, parity, years since last birth, site, socioeconomic, lifestyle, psychological, and family history variables, early adult BMI, and current BMI. Similarly, in fully adjusted models, mothers who breastfed any of their children for less than 3 months had 20.38 cm(2) (95% CI: 2.70, 38.06) greater visceral adiposity than mothers who consistently breastfed all their children for 3 or more months. This study found that 7 years postpartum visceral fat depots are significantly greater among mothers who lactated for less than 3 months after the birth of each of their children. These results provide a potential physiologic basis for prior findings that women who do not consistently breastfeed are at an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome.Maternal and Child Health Journal 03/2011; 16(2):316-21. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the long-term effect of lactation on maternal cardiovascular health except for a few animal or human experimental studies. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of lactation on the incidence of hypertension in premenopausal women. The data were derived from a cohort study with 6 years follow-up (1995-2000). The cohort was composed of 177,749 Korean premenopausal women, aged 20-59, who had medical evaluations in 1992 and 1994. During the follow-up, blood pressure was measured as part of the 1996, 1998, and 2000 periodic examinations. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, lactation decreased the risk of hypertension (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.96). Compared with women who with no history of lactation, 1-6 months of lactation decreased the risk of hypertension (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.93), as did 7-12 months (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) or 13-18 months (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99). In particular, the coexistence of obesity and no lactation increased the risk of hypertension (P for interaction = 0.028). This finding suggests that lactation may be a protective factor against hypertension among premenopausal women.Preventive Medicine 09/2005; 41(2):433-8. · 3.50 Impact Factor