Longitudinal Predictors of Cyber and Traditional Bullying Perpetration in Australian Secondary School Students

School of Psychology, Australian Catholic University, Australia.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 07/2012; 51(1):59-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.11.019
Source: PubMed


Cyberbullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyberbullying. The current article examines the individual, peer, family, and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not use technology) in adolescents.
This article draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this article, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in grade 5 are analyzed to examine grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyberbullying perpetration in grade 9 (aged 14-15 years).
Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyberbullying, 21% in traditional bullying, and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying, such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyberbullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure.
The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration (cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important.

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    • "ng ( Ortega and Mora - Merchán , 2008 ; Olweus , 2013 ; Ortega - Ruiz et al . , 2014 ) . Several studies have shown how cyberbullying , and more specifically cybervictimiza - tion , occur as the result of , and can be predicted by , traditional victimization , although this relationship is not seen in the other direction ( Del Rey et al . , 2012 ; Hemphill et al . , 2012 ; Kowalski et al . , 2012 ; Olweus , 2012 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well-documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that EI, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying. The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the "European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire," the "Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale"; and "Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24." Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables. The results support the idea that PEI, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and PEI explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.
    Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6(486). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00486 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "As cyberbullying has received extensive attention in the popular media, research on cyberbullying behaviors is also growing, at both the national and the international levels. The majority of existing studies have focused on the prevalence of the phenomenon (Kowalski, Limber, & Agatston, 2008; Merch, 2009; Olweus, 2012), school-based bullying (Hazler, Miller, Carney, & Green, 2001; O'Connell, Pepler, & Craig, 1999; Olweus, 1993; Patchin & Hinduja, 2006; Smith et al., 2008; Wang, Ronald, & Tonja, 2009), and the comparative analysis of traditional bullying and cyberbullying (Hay, Meldrum, & Mann, 2010; Hemphill et al., 2012; Patchin & Hinduja, 2011; Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). However, at present, studies focusing on the measurement of cyberbullying are still scarce. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cyber bullying represents a new and alarming form of bullying that potentially leads to serious and long-lasting consequences for young people; yet, there is a dearth of research on the assessment of cyberbullying behaviors among emerging adults. Thus, this study aims to close this gap by assessing the development and validation of the cyberbullying behavior scales for application in social work research and practice settings. Methods: Two scales, cyberbullying perpetration (CBP) and cyberbullying victimization (CBV), were validated using a purposive sample of 286 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Results: Both CBP and CBV scales showed excellent reliability (a = .93 for CBP and a = .95 for CBV), good fit, and strong convergent validity. Conclusions: The cyberbullying behavior scales provide valid and reliable measures of emerging adults’ bullying behaviors. Implications for further social work research and practice are discussed.
    Research on Social Work Practice 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/1049731515578535 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    • "iterios de severidad o de diferentes características observadas ( Hinduja y Patchin , 2009 ; Mishna , Khoury - Kassabri , Gadalla , y Daciuk , 2012 ; Williams y Guerra , 2007 ) . Estos hallazgos muestran como el ciberacoso , al igual que el acoso , se instala en las relaciones sociales repercu - tiendo en el contexto físico del aula o del centro ( Hemphill et al . , 2012 ; Janson y Hazler , 2004 ) . El ciberacoso puede llegar a perturbar de igual manera que el acoso directo , al clima y a la convivencia escolar ( Tokunaga , 2010 ) . Tradicionalmente se ha considerado a la convivencia positiva un aspecto protector puesto que el buen ambiente social es necesario para propiciar un desarrollo psicosocial y "
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    ABSTRACT: AbstractThe quality of social relationships in schools has been considered to be a relevant issue in the prevention of problems related to educational convivencia, such as bullying. Nowadays, these relationships have been enriched by digital devices, which not only offer new potentialities, but also new problems. In fact, convivencia has turned into cyber convivencia and some phenomena, such as bullying, have turned into cyberbullying. In this study, we analysed the possible relation between direct school convivencia and virtual life, and particularly, the predictive power of the school convivencia over cyberbullying. For these purposes, we surveyed 893 Compulsory Secondary Education students (45.9% girls) about the quality of the convivencia and the involvement in cyberbullying. The results offer a good fixed structural equation model in which the quality of the horizontal and vertical relationships is a predictor variable of cyberbullying. Therefore, the results in this study are proof of the relation between the quality of the direct school convivencia and the problems that arise in virtual environments.
    Infancia y Aprendizaje 10/2014; in press(3):1-27. DOI:10.1080/02103702.2014.957537 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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