The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is the largest-scale project ever undertaken to identify the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the United States.
The objective of the present study was to examine the accuracy of the ADDM methodology in terms of completeness of case ascertainment; that is, to assess the success of the ADDM Network in identifying and accurately classifying all existing cases of ASD among 8-year-old children in the target study areas.
To accomplish this objective, the ADDM methodology was applied to a selected region of South Carolina for 8-year olds in 2000 (birth year 1992) and again seven years later for the same region and birth year.
For this region and birth year, completeness of case ascertainment was high, with prevalence estimates of 7.6 per 1000 at both ages 8- and 15-years. For children common to both surveillance years, concordance in case status was also high (82%).
Given that prevalence did not change within this region and birth year, continued research is needed to better understand the changes in prevalence estimates being found by the ADDM network across surveillance groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed medication use and associated costs among 8- and 15-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified by the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (SCADDM) Network.
All Medicaid-eligible SCADDM-identified children with ASD from surveillance years 2006 and 2007 were included (n = 263). Children were classified as ASD cases when documented behaviors consistent with the DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified were present in health and education evaluation records. Medication and cost data were obtained by linking population-based and Medicaid data.
All 263 SCADDM-identified children had Medicaid data available; 56% (n = 147) had a prescription of any type, 40% (n = 105) used psychotropic medication, and 20% (n = 52) used multiple psychotropic classes during the study period. Common combinations were (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications and an antihypertensive, antidepressant or antipsychotic; and (2) antidepressants and an antipsychotic. Multiple psychotropic classes were more common among older children. Both the overall distribution of the number of prescription claims and medication costs varied significantly by age.
Results confirm that medication use in ASD, alone or in combination, is common, costly, and may increase with age.
Annals of epidemiology 01/2012; 22(1):1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.10.007 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver’s variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1) accessing and perception of remedial services, (2) utilization and perception of psychiatric services, (3) constraints for being a caregiver of children with ASD and (4) financial expenses of taking care of children with ASD. There is little indication that any particular SES fare well on these domains. Factors to mitigate such predicaments are therefore imperative in order to improve quality of life for caregivers among children with ASD.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2012; 43(5). DOI:10.1007/s10803-012-1667-9 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medication adherence in children is poor, particularly among those with chronic or mental health disorders. However, adherence has not been fully assessed in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The validated proportion of days covered method was used to quantify adherence to psychotropic medication in Medicaid-eligible children who met diagnostic criteria for ASD between 2000 and 2008 (N = 628). Among children prescribed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, 44, 40 and 52 % were adherent respectively. Aggressive behaviors and abnormalities in eating, drinking, and/or sleeping, co-occurring ADHD, and the Medication Regimen Complexity Index were the most significant predictors of adherence rather than demographics or core deficits of ASD. Identifying barriers to adherence in ASD may ultimately lead to improved treatment outcomes.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2014; 44(11). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2156-0 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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