Article

Association of epicardial fat thickness with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in obese patients.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
International journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 6.18). 06/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.06.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The correlation between obesity and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Although fat excess is a predisposing factor for the development of OSA, it has not been determined whether fat distribution rather than obesity per se is associated with OSA severity. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is an independent index of visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the relation between fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors, including EFT and common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), with the severity of OSA in obese patients. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen obese patients (56 males, 59 females) with polysomnographic evidence of OSA (≥5 apnea/hypopnea events per hour) of various degrees, without significant differences in grade of obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI), were evaluated. The following parameters were measured: BMI, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, EFT, right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) and cIMT by ultrasound, and parameters of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides). RESULTS: EFT, RVEDD, cIMT and trunk/leg fat mass ratio showed a positive correlation with OSA severity in univariate analysis (r=0.536, p<0.001; r=0.480, p<0.001; r=0.345, p<0.001; r=0.330, p<0.001, respectively). However, multiple linear regression analysis showed that EFT was the most significant independent correlate of the severity of OSA (R(2)=0.376, p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that, in obese patients, EFT may be included among the clinical parameters associating with OSA severity. The association of EFT with OSA, both cardiovascular risk factors, is independent of obesity as defined by classical measures.

1 Bookmark
 · 
267 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epicardial fat thickness (EFT), an indicator of visceral obesity, and leptin are 2 novel markers for studying the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) population. This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on leptin levels and EFT, and the relation with OSA severity. A total of 149 patients with OSA (female/male 55/94 and mean age 50.8 ± 9.2 years) and 50 control patients (female/male 24/26 and mean age 48.9 ± 8.8 years) were included in the study. The study population was divided into 4 groups according to apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) as control (AHI <5), the mild OSA (AHI 5-14), the moderate OSA (AHI 15-29), and the severe OSA (AHI ≥30). EFT was obtained from parasternal long-axis and parasternal short-axis echocardiographic images. Leptin levels among females were significantly higher than among males (10.5 [7.8] vs. 5.4 [4.5] ng/mL, P = 0.001, respectively). Among women, leptin levels were significantly higher in the severe OSA group compared to the control group (9.8 [9.0] vs. 15.5 [10.1] ng/mL, P = 0.05, respectively). Conversely, no relation was observed between OSA severity and the leptin levels among men. EFT was not significantly different between the 2 genders (P > 0.05). EFT was thicker in the severe OSA group than in the control and mild OSA groups among women, whereas EFT was not changed according to OSA severity among males (P > 0.05). Leptin and EFT may be a valuable parameter in the evaluation of OSA severity in women than in men.
    Echocardiography 10/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and early atherosclerosis. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is clinically related to subclinical atherosclerosis. In the present study, considering the major role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which is an acute phase protein rapidly releasing upon inflammation and tissue injury, we aimed to evaluate NGAL levels and EATT in PCOS patients and assess their relationship with cardiometabolic factors. 64 patients with PCOS and 50 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. We evaluated anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. EATT was measured by echocardiography above the free wall of the right ventricle. Serum NGAL and high-sensitive C- reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by ELISA. Mean EATT was 0,38 +/-0,16 mm in the PCOS group and 0,34 +/-0,36 mm in the control group (p = 0,144). In the obese PCOS group (n = 44) EAT was thicker compared to the obese control group (n = 41) (p = 0.026). Mean NGAL levels of the patients with PCOS were 101,98 +/-21,53 pg/ml, while mean NGAL levels were 107,40 +/-26,44 pg/ml in the control group (p = 0,228). We found a significant positive correlation between EATT and age, BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride and hsCRP levels in PCOS group. Thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue can be used to follow the risk of CVD development in obese PCOS cases. However serum NGAL levels do not differ in patients with PCOS and control group.
    Journal of Ovarian Research 02/2014; 7(1):24. · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parallel to the increase in obesity, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is continually increasing, with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular atherosclerosis diseases. Despite the importance of this public health problem, the relative impact of diet and physical activity on MetS prevalence has yet to be established. We investigated the association between lifestyle, in terms of both habitual dietary pattern and physical activity, and MetS in a cohort of adults without known diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Four hundred seventy-seven randomly selected adult participants were cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on physical activity, and underwent routine laboratory blood measurements. MetS was identified in 24.7 % of the cohort. Dietary patterns were not significantly different (P = 0.31) between the groups (with or without MetS). The habitual physical activity level was significantly lower (P = 0.011) in the group with MetS. In particular, the prevalence of sedentary participants was 58.1 % in the group with MetS, and 43.9 % in the group without MetS. Multivariate analysis revealed that MetS was associated with age (OR = 1.06, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08) and physical activity level (light vs. sedentary: OR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.32-0.87; moderate/heavy vs. sedentary: OR = 0.31, 95 % CI 0.13-0.75). This study suggests that inadequate physical activity level is associated with MetS. Our results are therefore consonant with the notion of healthier lifestyle changes to counteract the epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, though adequate interventional trials will be needed in high-risk populations.
    Eating and weight disorders: EWD 04/2014; · 0.53 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
124 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014