Editorial: glioblastoma subtype.

Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.15). 06/2012; 117(3):474; discussion 475. DOI: 10.3171/2012.1.JNS112254
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), a protein linked to the neuronal cytoskeleton in the mature central nervous system (CNS), has recently been identified in glial precursors indicating a potential role during glial development. In the present study, we systematically analyzed the expression of MAP2 in a series of 237 human neuroepithelial tumors including paraffin-embedded specimens and tumor tissue microarrays from oligodendrogliomas, mixed gliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas, ependymomas, as well as dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT), and central neurocytomas. In addition, MAP2-immunoreactive precursor cells were studied in the developing human brain. Three monoclonal antibodies generated against MAP2A-B or MAP2A-D isoforms were used. Variable immunoreactivity for MAP2 could be observed in all gliomas with the exception of ependymomas. Oligodendrogliomas exhibited a consistently strong and distinct pattern of expression characterized by perinuclear cytoplasmic staining without significant process labeling. Tumor cells with immunoreactive bi- or multi-polar processes were mostly encountered in astroglial neoplasms, whereas the small cell component in neurocytomas and DNT was not labeled. These features render MAP2 immunoreactivity a helpful diagnostic tool for the distinction of oligodendrogliomas and other neuroepithelial neoplasms. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and in situ hybridization confirmed the expression of MAP2A-C (including the novel MAP2+ 13 transcript) in both oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. Double fluorescent laser scanning microscopy showed that GFAP and MAP2 labeled different tumor cell populations. In embryonic human brains, MAP2-immunoreactive glial precursor cells were identified within the subventricular or intermediate zones. These precursors exhibit morphology closely resembling the immunolabeled neoplastic cells observed in glial tumors. Our findings demonstrate MAP2 expression in astrocytic and oligodendroglial neoplasms. The distinct pattern of immunoreactivity in oligodendrogliomas may be useful as a diagnostic tool. Since MAP2 expression occurs transiently in migrating immature glial cells, our findings are in line with an assumed origin of diffuse gliomas from glial precursors.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 11/2001; 60(10):984-93.
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-Internexin (INA) is a proneural gene encoding a neurofilament interacting protein that is upregulated in some gliomas, particularly oligodendrogliomas. INA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 122 gliomas, and correlated to the 1p19q codeletion, a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendroglial tumors. INA expression was strong (>10% positive cells) in 22 cases (22 oligodendroglial tumors and 0 astrocytic tumors), weak (<10% cells) in 14 cases (12 oligodendroglial tumors, 2 glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component, and 0 astrocytic tumors), and negative in 86 cases (49 oligodendroglial tumors, 9 glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component, and 28 astrocytic tumors). Among the 27 tumors exhibiting the 1p19q codeletion (all with an oligodendroglial phenotype), INA was detected in 96% (26/27, 18 strong, 8 weak) as compared to 11% (10/95, 4 strong, 6 weak) in the tumors without 1p19q codeletion (with an oligodendroglial or an astrocytic phenotype) (p < 0.001). In oligodendroglial tumors, INA expression specificity for 1p19q codeletion was 86%, sensitivity 96%, positive predictive value 76%, and negative predictive value was 98%. The prognostic impact of INA expression could be evaluated in grade III oligodendroglial tumors. Similar to 1p19q deletion, positive INA expression was correlated with better progression-free survival (52.6 vs 8.7 months [p = 0.001]) and overall survival (121.1 vs 31.4 months [p = 0.0001]). alpha-Internexin (INA) expression appears to be a simple, reliable prognostic marker and a surrogate marker of 1p19q codeletion.
    Neurology 01/2009; 72(2):156-61. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000339055.64476.cb
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the frequency of IDH1 mutations in glioblastomas at a population level, and to assess whether they allow reliable discrimination between primary (de novo) glioblastomas and secondary glioblastomas that progressed from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma. We screened glioblastomas from a population-based study for IDH1 mutations and correlated them with clinical data and other genetic alterations. IDH1 mutations were detected in 36 of 407 glioblastomas (8.8%). Glioblastoma patients with IDH1 mutations were younger (mean, 47.9 years) than those with EGFR amplification (60.9 years) and were associated with significantly longer survival (mean, 27.1 versus 11.3 months; P < 0.0001). IDH1 mutations were frequent in glioblastomas diagnosed as secondary (22 of 30; 73%), but rare in primary glioblastomas (14 of 377; 3.7%: P < 0.0001). IDH1 mutations as genetic marker of secondary glioblastoma corresponded to the respective clinical diagnosis in 95% of cases. Glioblastomas with IDH1 mutation diagnosed as primary had clinical and genetic profiles similar to those of secondary glioblastomas, suggesting that they may have rapidly progressed from a less malignant precursor lesion that escaped clinical diagnosis and were thus misclassified as primary. Conversely, glioblastomas without IDH1 mutations clinically diagnosed as secondary typically developed from anaplastic rather than low-grade gliomas, suggesting that at least some were actually primary glioblastomas, that may have been misclassified, possibly due to histologic sampling error. IDH1 mutations are a strong predictor of a more favorable prognosis and a highly selective molecular marker of secondary glioblastomas that complements clinical criteria for distinguishing them from primary glioblastomas.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2009; 15(19):6002-7. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0715