Effect of the Support Size on the Properties of β-Galactosidase Immobilized on Chitosan: Advantages and Disadvantages of Macro and Nanoparticles
ABSTRACT The effect of the support size on the properties of enzyme immobilization was investigated by using chitosan macroparticles and nanoparticles. They were prepared by precipitation and ionotropic gelation, respectively, and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scattering analysis (LSA), and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. β-Galactosidase was used as a model enzyme. It was found that the different sizes and porosities of the particles modify the enzymatic load, activity, and thermal stability of the immobilized biocatalysts. The highest activity was shown by the enzyme immobilized on nanoparticles when 204.2 mg protein·(g dry support)(-1) were attached. On the other hand, the same biocatalysts presented lower thermal stability than macroparticles. β-Galactosidase immobilized on chitosan macro and nanoparticles exhibited excellent operational stability at 37 °C, because it was still able to hydrolyze 83.2 and 75.93% of lactose, respectively, after 50 cycles of reuse.
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ABSTRACT: In this work, β-fructofuranosidase and β-fructosyltransferase were covalently immobilized on chitosan spheres, using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent, in order to produce invert sugar and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Maxinvert L was used to make β-fructofuranosidase biocatalyst yielding 7000 HU/g. A partial purified β-fructosyltransferase from Viscozyme L was used to prepare the other biocatalyst yielding 2100 TU/g. The production of invert sugar and FOS was evaluated using different continuous enzymatic reactors: two packed bed reactors (PBR) and two fluidized bed reactors (FBR). The invert sugar production achieved a yield of 98% (grams of product per grams of initial sucrose) in the PBR and 94% in the FBR, whereas FOS production achieved a yield of 59% in the PBR and 54% in the FBR. It was also observed in both cases that varying the flow rate it is possible to modulate the FOS composition in terms of nystose and kestose concentrations. The operational stability of FOS produced in the PBR was evaluated for 40 days showing no reductions in yields.Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 11/2014; 111. DOI:10.1016/j.molcatb.2014.11.002 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitriles, amides and carboxylic acids have varied applications in active pharmaceutical intermediate (API), drug and chemical industry, and particularly in the synthesis of pure enantiomers of chiral compounds. The chemical hydrolysis of nitrile compounds is well studied, but it necessitates harsh conditions along with the protection of sensitive functional groups, which on deprotection leads to generation of a large amount of byproducts. Immobilization of nitrile hydratase using a novel support reduces the cost and allows green processes. In this work, enantioselective hydrolysis of rac-mandelonitrile was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan–glutaraldehyde cross-linked Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870 nitrile hydratase (NHase). Immobilized NHase converted rac-mandelonitrile to (R)-amide by dynamic kinetic resolution with enantiomeric excess (ee) up to 81%. The temperature of 40 °C and pH 8 were found to be optimum for the enantioselective nitrile hydrolysis. In the presence of various cosolvents, immobilized NHase showed higher retention of activity in methanol compared to other cosolvents. The kinetic constants for free and immobilized enzyme were obtained from the Lineweaver–Burk plot. The immobilized NHase was found to be reusable up to nine successive batch reactions.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 04/2014; 53(19):7986–7991. DOI:10.1021/ie500564b · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chitosan-grafted hydrogels were employed for immobilization and controlled released of β-galactosidase. These hydrogels containing immobilized enzymes were employed to simulate the production of lactose-free food and controlled release of β-galactosidase into lactose-intolerant individuals. The degree of swelling, efficiency of immobilization (i.e., fractional uptake of enzyme), and controlled release were studied as a function of pH and temperature. The degrees of swelling decreased in acidic media: 49.4g absorbed water per g hydrogel at pH 7.0, and 8.4g absorbed water per g hydrogel at pH 3.5. The immobilization efficiency was 19%, indicating that chitosan-grafted hydrogels are promising matrices for enzyme adsorption and immobilization. Cyclic experiments reveal that chitosan-grafted hydrogels containing immobilized enzymes can be reused several times without introducing additional enzyme prior to each cycle. There is no significant decrease in the activity of the immobilized enzyme during reutilization studies. All results were conducted in triplicate by considering t-tests at a 95% significance level. Analysis of β-galactosidase activity and controlled release reveals that chitosan-grafted hydrogels containing immobilized enzymes are useful for the production of lactose-free food and controlled enzyme release with high performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Food Chemistry 07/2015; 179. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.088 · 3.26 Impact Factor