Small metacarpal bones of low quality in obese children
Department of Pediatrics, Regional Hospital of Bolzano (S.L., B.P., G.R.), Italy.Clinical Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.46). 06/2012; 78(1). DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04476.x
OBJECTIVE: It is still not known whether fat mass excess could exert a positive effect on bone. The aim of our study was to evaluate bone strength and quality in a group of overweight and obese children and adolescents by assessing bone geometry at metacarpal bones and ultrasound at phalangeal level. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This is a cross sectional observational study performed in 123 subjects, aged 11.2 ± 2.9 years. MEASUREMENTS: Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the 2(nd) metacarpal bone for the determination of the outer (D) and inner (d) diameter, cortical area (CA), medullary endocortical area (EA), metacarpal index (MI) and bone strength (Bending Breaking Resistance Index;BBRI). 98 subjects underwent amplitude dependent speed of sound (Ad-SOS) and bone transmission time (BTT) assessment by phalangeal ultrasonography. RESULTS: SDs for each measured parameter were as follows: Males: D -0.71±0.95, d -0.29±0.86, CA -0.69±0.69, EA -0.32±0.79, Ad-SOS -1.14±0.91, BTT -1.17±1.11 and BBRI (417±151 vs 495 ± 174 mm(3)) were all significantly lower than in controls (p<0.05). Females: D -1.03±1.06, d -0.38±0.92, CA -0.91±0.72, EA -0.46±0.79, Ad-SOS -1.08±1.11, BTT -0.97±1.07 and BBRI (342±117 vs 649 ± 318 mm(3)) were all significantly lower than in controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obese children show an unfavorable bone geometry and a bone of low quality and reduced strength compared to controls at a non-weight bearing skeletal site. This finding seems to support a detrimental effect of fat mass on bone and explain the frequent occurrence of wrist fractures in this group of children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: Obese children have disadvantageous bone geometry, bone of low quality, and reduced strength at non-weight-bearing skeletal sites. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of parathormone (PTH) and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and its inhibitors, sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), as negative modulators of fat mass on bone. This was a cross-sectional observational study performed in 44 (26 males and 18 females) obese subjects, aged 11.41 ± 2.61 years. Thirty-seven normal-weight, healthy children (22 males and 15 females) of the same chronological age served as controls for the biochemical parameters and bone markers, while the data on bone geometry were evaluated according to our normative data obtained previously in a group of 325 control children. Digitalized X-rays were evaluated at the level of the second metacarpal bone for the determination of bone geometry: total cross-sectional area (TCSA), cortical area (CA), medullary area (MA), and bone strength (bending breaking resistance index [BBRI]). Serum bone markers (intact procollagen-1N-terminal propeptide [P1NP] and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 [CTX]), sclerostin, DKK1, PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were also measured. Data for TCSA, CA, MA, and BBRI are expressed as a standard deviation score in order to normalize them for age and sex. TCSA (mean ± SD, -2.92 ± 2.71), CA (-0.60 ± 0.82), MA (-0.45 ± 1.14), and BBRI (-2.65 ± 2.31) were all significantly smaller than in controls (p < 0.01). Serum PTH (36.27 ± 23.89 vs. 19.33 ± 11.37 pg/mL) and CTX (1.55 ± 0.44 vs. 1.34 ± 0.46 ng/mL) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the obese children compared to controls, while sclerostin was significantly decreased (24.67 ± 10.06 vs. 30.42 ± 11.01 pmol/L, p < 0.05). P1NP was also significantly increased (p < 0.01). PTH was negatively correlated with TCSA, CA, and BBRI. Bone turnover is higher in obese children than in controls, and this is associated with smaller and apparently weaker bones. Higher PTH and lower sclerostin levels may be responsible for these findings.Calcified Tissue International 04/2014; 95(1). DOI:10.1007/s00223-014-9853-8 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity in childhood is associated with the presence of complications that can undermine health immediately or in the long term. Several conditions, such as pulmonary or orthopedic complications are strictly associated with the severity of overweight, since they are directly associated to the mechanic stress of fat tissue on the airways or on the bones. Other conditions, such as metabolic or liver complications, although increasing with the extent of overweight, are associated with insulin resistance, which can be modulated by different other factors (ethnicity, genetics, fat distribution) and can occur in overweight children as well. No less important are psychological correlates, such as depression and stigma, which can seriously affect the health related quality of life. Pediatric services for the care of childhood obesity need to be able to screen overweight and obese children for the presence of physical and psychological complications, which can be still reversed by weight loss. This article provides pediatricians a comprehensive update on the main complications in obese children and adolescents and their treatment.Minerva pediatrica 10/2014; 66(5):381-414. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: To establish normative data for phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measures in Brazilian students. METHODS: The sample was composed of 6870 students (3688 females and 3182 males), aged 6 to 17 years. The bone status parameter, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS) was assessed by QUS of the phalanges using DBM Sonic BP (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) equipment. Skin color was obtained by self-evaluation. The LMS method was used to derive smoothed percentiles reference charts for AD-SoS according to sex, age, height and weight and to generate the L, M, and S parameters. RESULTS: Girls showed higher AD-SoS values than boys in the age groups 7-16 (p<0.001). There were no differences on AD-SoS Z-scores according to skin color. In both sexes, the obese group showed lower values of AD-SoS Z-scores compared with subjects classified as thin or normal weight. Age (r2 = 0.48) and height (r2 = 0.35) were independent predictors of AD-SoS in females and males, respectively. CONCLUSION: AD-SoS values in Brazilian children and adolescents were influenced by sex, age and weight status, but not by skin color. Our normative data could be used for monitoring AD-SoS in children or adolescents aged 6-17 years.PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127294 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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