Westmead Hospital, Cancer Genetics, Westmead, NSW, Australia
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000563.pub4 In book: The Cochrane Library
Background The addition of radiotherapy (RT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) was first shown to reduce the risk of ipsilateral recurrence in the treatment of invasive breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion. Recurrence of ipsilateral disease following BCS can be either DCIS or invasive breast cancer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that RT can reduce the risk of recurrence, but assessment of potential long-term complications from addition of RT following BSC for DCIS has not been reported for women participating in RCTs. Objectives To summarise the data from RCTs testing the addition of RT to BCS for treatment of DCIS to determine the balance between the benefits and harms. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (January 2008), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (February 2008), and EMBASE (February 2008). Reference lists of articles and handsearching of ASCO (2007), ESMO (2002 to 2007), and St Gallen (2005 to 2007) conferences were performed. Selection criteria RCTs of breast conserving surgery with and without radiotherapy in women at first diagnosis of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (no invasive disease present). Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed each potentially eligible trial for inclusion and its quality. Two authors also independently extracted data from published Kaplan-Meier analysis (survival curves) and reported summary statistics. Data were extracted and pooled for four trials. Data for planned subgroups were extracted and pooled for analysis. There were insufficient data to pool for long-term toxicity from radiotherapy. Main results Four RCTs involving 3925 women were identified and included in this review. All were high quality with minimal risk of bias. Three trials compared the addition of RT to BCS. One trial was a two by two factorial design comparing the use of RT and tamoxifen, each separately or together, in which participants were randomised in at least one arm. Analysis confirmed a statistically significant benefit from the addition of radiotherapy on all ipsilateral breast events (hazards ratio (HR) 0.49; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.59, P < 0.00001) and ipsilateral DCIS recurrence (HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.01, P = 0.05). Pooled analysis for invasive recurrence did not reach statistical significance. All the subgroups analysed benefited from addition of radiotherapy. No significant long-term toxicity from radiotherapy was found. No information about short-term toxicity from radiotherapy or quality of life data were reported. Authors' conclusions This review confirms the benefit of adding radiotherapy to breast conserving surgery for the treatment of all women diagnosed with DCIS. No long-term toxicity from use of radiotherapy was identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate breast cancer recurrence risk perceptions might motivate health-promoting behaviors and alleviate undue anxiety. Although a few studies have examined early-stage breast cancer survivors' perceived risk of recurrence, none have assessed the accuracy of survivors' perceived risk of recurrence.
First primary ductal carcinoma in situ and early-invasive breast cancer survivors reported their perceived risk of recurrence during 6- and 12-month postsurgery interviews. We estimated the patients' 10-year risk of recurrence from published clinical trials, and for early-invasive breast cancer patients, risk of distant recurrence was based on their breast cancer-specific mortality calculated using Adjuvant! Online. Patients' perceived risk was compared with their calculated risk and categorized as "Accurate," "Underestimated," "Overestimated," and "Uncertain." Multinomial logit marginal effect models were fitted using Accurate as the reference.
Only 17% of 531 patients accurately perceived their risk at 6 months, most of whom inaccurately perceived their risk at 12 months (P = 0.0143). Patients who were nonwhite [odds ratio (OR), 1.70; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.12-2.56] and received radiation therapy (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.07-3.77) were more likely to underestimate their risk. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11-2.79), [corrected] lower social support (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.95), and anxiety (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.47) were more likely to overestimate their risk.
Few breast cancer survivors accurately perceived their risk of recurrence.
The accuracy of perceived risk may be increased by better physician-patient communications about their prognosis, provision of social support, and treatment for coexisting anxiety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous entity with an elusive natural history. The objective of radiological, histological and molecular characterisation remains to reliably predict the biological behaviour and optimise clinical management strategies. Increases in diagnostic frequency have followed the introduction of mammographic screening and increased utility of magnetic resonance imaging. However, progress remains limited in distinguishing non-progressive incidental lesions from their progressive and clinically relevant counterparts. This article reviews current management strategies for DCIS in the context of recent randomized trials, including the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine treatment.
Literature review facilitated by Medline, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases.
DCIS should be managed in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Local control depends upon adequate surgical clearance with margins of at least 2 mm. SLNB is not routinely indicated and should be reserved for those with concurrent or recurrent invasive disease. SLNB can be considered in patients undergoing mastectomy (MX) and those with risk factors for invasion such as palpability, comedo morphology, necrosis or recurrent disease. RT following BCS significantly reduces local recurrence (LR), particularly in those at high-risk. There remains a lack of level-1 evidence supporting the omission of adjuvant RT in selected low-risk cases. Large, multi-centric or recurrent lesions (particularly in cases of prior RT) should be treated by MX with the opportunity for immediate reconstruction. Adjuvant Tamoxifen may reduce the risk of LR in selected cases with hormone sensitive disease.
Further research is required to determine the role of contemporary RT regimes and endocrine therapies. Biological profiling and molecular analysis represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of the tumour biology of this condition and rationalise its treatment. Reliable identification of low-risk lesions could allow treatment to be less radical or safely omitted.
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