Determination of Size, Morphology, and Nitrogen Impurity Location in Treated Detonation Nanodiamond by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Advanced Functional Materials (Impact Factor: 10.44). 07/2009; 19(13):2116 - 2124. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801872

ABSTRACT Size, morphology, and nitrogen impurity location, all of which are all thought to be related to the luminescent properties of detonation nanodiamonds, are determined in several detonation nanodiamond samples using a combination of transmission electron microscopy techniques. Results obtained from annealed and cleaned detonation nanodiamond samples are compared to results from conventionally purified detonation nanodiamond. Detailed electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with model-based quantification provides direct evidence for the sp3 like embedding of nitrogen impurities into the diamond cores of all the studied nanodiamond samples. Simultaneously, the structure and morphology of the cleaned detonation nanodiamond particles are studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the size and morphology of detonation nanodiamonds can be modified by temperature treatment and that by applying a special cleaning procedure after temperature treatment, nanodiamond particles with clean facets almost free from sp2 carbon can be prepared. These clean facets are clear evidence that nanodiamond cores are not necessarily in coexistence with a graphitic shell of non-diamond carbon.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The possibility to align diamond nanoparticles has a number of potential technological applications, but there are few methods by which this can be achieved, and research in this field can be considered to be in its infancy. Hitherto, two methods which have been commonly used are lithography and chemical vapour deposition (CVD), but these methods are both complex and have poor effectiveness. In this paper, we present a new technique for particle alignment, which is simpler and avoids particle structural damage. The method works by functionalising the nanodiamonds of size 5 nm by attaching 1-undecene onto the nanodiamond surfaces; the particles are then evaporated using UHV and deposited onto TEM grids and mica surfaces at 200 °C. XPS, SERS, HRTEM, luminescence spectroscopy and luminescence micro-imaging have been applied to characterise samples both before and after evaporation. Deposition of nanodiamond onto a mica surface resulted in particle alignment with length scales of 500 µm. The XPS and Raman spectra confirmed the absence of non-diamond carbon (sp2-hybridized carbon). Moreover, photoluminescence (emitting in the range of 2.48–1.55 eV; 500–800 nm) which is characteristic for nanodiamond with size of 5 nm was also observed, both before and after evaporation of the functionalised nanodiamonds.
    Journal of Luminescence 12/2014; 156:41–48. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2014.06.045 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a new class of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, carbon-dot-decorated nanodiamonds (CDD-ND), is reported. These CDD-NDs are produced by specific acid treatment of detonation soot, forming tiny rounded sp2 carbon species (carbon dots), 1–2 atomic layers thick and 1–2 nm in size, covalently attached to the surface of the detonation diamond nanoparticles. A combination of nanodiamonds bonded with a graphitic phase as a starting material and the application of graphite intercalated acids for oxidation of the graphitic carbon is necessary for the successful production of CDD-ND. The CDD-ND photoluminescence (PL) is stable, 20 times more intense than the intrinsic PL of well-purified NDs and can be tailored by changing the oxidation process parameters. Carbon-dot-decorated DNDs are shown to be excellent probes for bioimaging applications and inexpensive additives for PL nanocomposites.
    Particle and Particle Systems Characterization 05/2014; 31(5). DOI:10.1002/ppsc.201300251 · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The majority of complex and advanced materials contain nanoparticles. The properties of these materials depend crucially on the size and shape of these nanoparticles. Wulff construction offers a simple method of predicting the equilibrium shape of nanoparticles given the surface energies of the material. We review the mathematical formulation and the main applications of Wulff construction during the last two decades. We then focus to three recent extensions: active sites of metal nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis, ligand-protected nanoparticles generated as colloidal suspensions and nanoparticles of complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. Wulff construction, in particular when linked to first-principles calculations, is a powerful tool for the analysis and prediction of the shapes of nanoparticles and tailor the properties of shape-inducing species.
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 01/2015; 6:361-368. DOI:10.3762/bjnano.6.35 · 2.33 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014