Node Positioning for Increased Dependability of Wireless Sensor Networks

School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
DOI: 10.1002/9780470396360.ch9 In book: Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, pp.225 - 266
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we propose an integrated solution to jointly solve the localization and data routing problems in sensor networks. In our solution, the localization system divides the network into Voronoi cells to reduce communication costs, and as a result, the system allows two ways for specifying a node location: the nodes ' physical location or the Voronoi cell it belongs to. This localization system yields a natural hierarchy based on Voronoi cells that is used by the integrated routing algorithm we propose. The proposed geographic routing algorithm may use either the nodes ' coordinates or the Voronoi cells to forward data packets. A key advantage of this routing algorithm is that no additional communication is required for route discovery, leading to a cost-free and very scalable routing algorithm. Such a dual solution, called Cellular (Cell Unified Localization And Routing) algorithm, to solve the localization and routing problems, represents a new trend of algorithms for sensor networks, where multiple problems are jointly solved to provide cheaper and integrated solutions.
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of a localization system is an important task in wireless sensor networks. Due to the geographic correlation of the sensed data, location information is com-monly used to name the gathered data, address nodes and regions, and also improve the performance of many geo-graphic algorithms. Depending on the localization algo-rithm, different error behaviors (e.g., mean, probability dis-tribution, and correlation) can be exhibited by the sensor network. The process of understanding and analysing this behavior is the first step toward a mathematical model of the localization error. Furthermore, this knowledge can also be used to propose improvements to these systems. In this work, we divide the localization systems into three compo-nents: distance estimation, position computation, and the localization algorithm. We show how each component can affect on the final error of the system. In this work, we concentrate on the third component: the localization algo-rithm. The error behaviors of three known localization al-gorithms are evaluated together in similar scenarios so the different behaviors of the localization error can be identified and analysed. The influence of these errors in geographic algorithms is also analysed, showing the importance of un-derstanding the error behavior and the importance of geo-graphic algorithms which consider the inaccuracy of position estimations.
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring applications define an important class of applications used in wireless sensor networks. In these applications the network perceives the environment and searches for event occurrences (phenomena) by sensing different physical properties, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, ambient light, movement, and presence (for target tracking). In such cases the location information of both phenomena and nodes is usually required for tracking and correlation purposes. In this work we summarize most of the concepts related to localization systems for WSNs as well as how to localize the nodes in these networks (which allows the localization of phenomena). By dividing the localization systems into three distinct components -distance/angle estimation, position computation, and localization algorithm - besides providing a didactic viewpoint, we show that these components can be seen as subareas of the localization problem that need to be analyzed and studied separately.
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