Activities of daily living in persons with mental retardation: Strengths and limitations in specific motor and process skills
As there is a wide range of abilities among clients with intellectual disability, occupational therapists should use assessments of activities of daily living that specify clients’ strengths and limitations to guide and target interventions. The aim of the present study was to examine if activities of daily living performance skills differ between adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and forty-eight participants with either mild intellectual disability (n = 178) or moderate intellectual disability (n = 170) were assessed using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to examine the quality of their activities of daily living skills. The overall activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process hierarchies of skill item difficulties remained stable between groups. Although participants with moderate intellectual disability had more difficulty overall with activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process skills, they were able to carry out some of these activities equally as well as participants with mild intellectual disability. The findings are discussed in relation to the planning of specific interventions to improve the ability of clients with intellectual disability to carry out activities of daily living.
Available from: Lena Alex
- "As the sample size impacts on the standard errors of item difficulty estimates, this may result in significant but not meaningful differences between items. Therefore, we also evaluated the size of the discrepancy between item difficulty estimates using an additional approach where the item standard error was set at 0.15 logit, indicating that an item DIF must exceed 0.43 logit to also be clinically meaningful (Petersson et al., 2008; Kottorp et al., 2003; Stauffer et al., 2000). SPSS for Windows Version 14.0 software (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was also used to analyse demographic data, concurrent validity, and possible differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between persons with and without misfit. "
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ABSTRACT: Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility.
The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties.
An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability.
CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79).
The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies.
International journal of nursing studies 04/2011; 48(10):1266-74. DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.03.006 · 2.90 Impact Factor
Available from: diva-portal.org
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ABSTRACT: Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an occupational therapy intervention program on activities of daily living (ADL) ability and awareness of disability.
Methods: Six persons with intellectual disabilities participated in the study, which was based on a single-case design. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and Assessment of Awareness of Disability were used as evaluation tools.
Results: Activities of daily living performance improved in five of the six participants after implementation of the program, with improvement across both motor and process skills. However, no clear improvement in awareness of disability was found following implementation of the program.
Conclusion: It may be concluded from this study that persons with intellectual disabilities can benefit from occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL ability, even in the absence of any change in their awareness of disability.
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 11/2005; 52(4):350 - 359. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2005.00523.x · 0.85 Impact Factor
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