Activities of daily living in persons with mental retardation: Strengths and limitations in specific motor and process skills

Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (Impact Factor: 0.85). 11/2003; 50(4):195 - 204. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1630.2003.00401.x


As there is a wide range of abilities among clients with intellectual disability, occupational therapists should use assessments of activities of daily living that specify clients’ strengths and limitations to guide and target interventions. The aim of the present study was to examine if activities of daily living performance skills differ between adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and forty-eight participants with either mild intellectual disability (n = 178) or moderate intellectual disability (n = 170) were assessed using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to examine the quality of their activities of daily living skills. The overall activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process hierarchies of skill item difficulties remained stable between groups. Although participants with moderate intellectual disability had more difficulty overall with activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process skills, they were able to carry out some of these activities equally as well as participants with mild intellectual disability. The findings are discussed in relation to the planning of specific interventions to improve the ability of clients with intellectual disability to carry out activities of daily living.

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    • "As the sample size impacts on the standard errors of item difficulty estimates, this may result in significant but not meaningful differences between items. Therefore, we also evaluated the size of the discrepancy between item difficulty estimates using an additional approach where the item standard error was set at 0.15 logit, indicating that an item DIF must exceed 0.43 logit to also be clinically meaningful (Petersson et al., 2008; Kottorp et al., 2003; Stauffer et al., 2000). SPSS for Windows Version 14.0 software (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was also used to analyse demographic data, concurrent validity, and possible differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between persons with and without misfit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an occupational therapy intervention program on activities of daily living (ADL) ability and awareness of disability. Methods: Six persons with intellectual disabilities participated in the study, which was based on a single-case design. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and Assessment of Awareness of Disability were used as evaluation tools. Results: Activities of daily living performance improved in five of the six participants after implementation of the program, with improvement across both motor and process skills. However, no clear improvement in awareness of disability was found following implementation of the program. Conclusion: It may be concluded from this study that persons with intellectual disabilities can benefit from occupational therapy interventions to improve ADL ability, even in the absence of any change in their awareness of disability.
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