p53- and Bax-Mediated Apoptosis in Injured Rat Spinal Cord

Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL 61656, USA.
Neurochemical Research (Impact Factor: 2.59). 07/2011; 36(11):2063-74. DOI: 10.1007/s11064-011-0530-2


Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a series of endogenous biochemical changes that lead to secondary degeneration, including apoptosis. p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis is likely to be an important mechanism of cell death in spinal cord injury. However, the signaling cascades that are activated before DNA fragmentation have not yet been determined. DNA damage-induced, p53-activated neuronal cell death has already been identified in several neurodegenerative diseases. To determine DNA damage-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in spinal cord injury, we performed RT-PCR microarray and analyzed 84 DNA damaging and apoptotic genes. Genes involved in DNA damage and apoptosis were upregulated whereas anti-apoptotic genes were downregulated in injured spinal cords. Western blot analysis showed the upregulation of DNA damage-inducing protein such as ATM, cell cycle checkpoint kinases, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), BRCA2 and H2AX in injured spinal cord tissues. Detection of phospho-H2AX in the nucleus and release of 8-OHdG in cytosol were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of p53 was observed in the neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of phospho-p53, Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 were detected after spinal cord injury. Sub-cellular distribution of Bax and cytochrome c indicated mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis taking place after spinal cord injury. In addition, we carried out immunohistochemical analysis to confirm Bax translocation into the mitochondria and activated p53 at Ser(3)(9)(2). Expression of APAF1, caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities confirmed the intrinsic apoptotic pathway after SCI. Activated p53 and Bax mitochondrial translocation were detected in injured spinal neurons. Taken together, the in vitro data strengthened the in vivo observations of DNA damage-induced p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord.

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Available from: Rama P Kotipatruni,
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    • "In contrast, Bax, a cytosolic protein in normal living cells, can induce apoptosis and quickly translocates to mitochondria at an early stage of the apoptotic process. Kotipatruni et al. [20] showed upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 in rat spinal cords after SCI. These results suggested the involvement of a mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway after SCI. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms behind the repairing effects of the cotransplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have not been fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the cotransplantation of OECs with BMSCs on antiapoptotic effects in adult rats for which the models of SCI are induced. We examined the changes in body weight, histopathological changes, apoptosis, and the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins after 14 days and 28 days after transplantation. We also assessed animal locomotion using BBB test. We found that treatment with OECs and BMSCs had a remissive effect on behavioral outcome and histopathological changes induced SCI. Furthermore, we observed the significant antiapoptotic effect on cotransplant treated group. In addition, cotransplantation of OECs with BMSCs was found to have more significant repairing effect than that of OECs or BMSCs alone. Furthermore, the recovery of hind limb could be related to antiapoptotic effect of OECs and BMSCs through downregulating the apoptotic pathways. Finally, our data suggested the cotransplantation of OECs with BMSCs holds promise for a potential cure after SCI through the ability to incorporate into the spinal cord.
    Stem cell International 08/2015; 2015(4–6):516215. DOI:10.1155/2015/516215 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    • "The Bax pro-apoptotic protein is a Bcl-2 protein family, which participate in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis [8]. When subjected to certain stimuli such as excitotoxicity, this protein activates proteases that cause apoptosis [3] [7] [9] [10]. "
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    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 09/2014; 7(8):4617-26. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    • "In this study, the fact that the expression of the apoptosis-promoting factor Bax significantly decreased and that of the apoptosis-inhibitory factor survivin significantly increased in group 1G and CL rats compared with group Control, demonstrated the trophic, antiapoptotic effect of the grafted rBMSCs. Apoptosis and free-radical damage are the prominent processes involved in secondary degeneration after SCI [43,44]. Our results suggest that the grafted BMSCs immediately after injury prevented the secondary degeneration and enhanced the proliferation of the axons to a greater extent in group CL rather than in group 1G. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Recently, cell-based therapy has gained significant attention for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Although bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered to have good engraftment potential, challenges due to in vitro culturing, such as a decline in their functional potency, have been reported. Here, we investigated the efficacy of rat BMSCs (rBMSCs) cultured under simulated microgravity conditions, for transplantation into a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods rBMSCs were cultured under two different conditions: standard gravity (1G) and simulated microgravity attained by using the 3D-clinostat. After 7 days of culture, the rBMSCs were analyzed morphologically, with RT-PCR and immunostaining, and were used for grafting. Adult rats were used for constructing SCI models by using a weight-dropping method and were grouped into three experimental groups for comparison. rBMSCs cultured under 1 g and simulated microgravity were transplanted intravenously immediately after SCI. We evaluated the hindlimb functional improvement for 3 weeks. Tissue repair after SCI was examined by calculating the cavity area ratio and immunohistochemistry. Results rBMSCs cultured under simulated microgravity expressed Oct-4 and CXCR4, in contrast to those cultured under 1 g conditions. Therefore, rBMSCs cultured under simulated microgravity were considered to be in an undifferentiated state and thus to possess high migration ability. After transplantation, grafted rBMSCs cultured under microgravity exhibited greater survival at the periphery of the lesion, and the motor functions of the rats that received these grafts improved significantly compared with the rats that received rBMSCs cultured in 1 g. In addition, rBMSCs cultured under microgravity were thought to have greater trophic effects on reestablishment and survival of host spinal neural tissues because cavity formations were reduced, and apoptosis-inhibiting factor expression was high at the periphery of the SCI lesion. Conclusions Here we show that transplantation of rBMSCs cultured under simulated microgravity facilitates functional recovery from SCI rather than those cultured under 1 g conditions.
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