Objectives: To conduct the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial evaluating and comparing the medical and surgical treatment of polypoid and nonpolypoid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with CRS were equally randomized either to medical or surgical therapy. All patients underwent pre- and posttreatment assessments of visual analogue score (VAS), the Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20), the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), nitric oxide (NO), acoustic rhinometry, saccharine clearance time (SCT), and nasal endoscopy. Each patient had three assessments: before starting the treatment, after 6 months, and, finally, after 1 year.Results: Both the medical and surgical treatment of CRS significantly improved almost all the subjective and objective parameters of CRS (P < .01), with no significant difference being found between the medical and surgical groups (P > .05), except for the total nasal volume in CRS (P < .01) and CRS without polyposis (P < .01) groups, in which the surgical treatment demonstrated greater changes.Conclusion: CRS should be initially targeted with maximal medical therapy (e.g., a 3 month course of a macrolide antibiotic, douche, and topical steroid), with surgical treatment being reserved for cases refractory to medical therapy. The presence of nasal polyps is not a poor prognostic factor for the efficacy of CRS therapy, either surgical or medical.
"Hartog et al140 showed no significant difference in overall cure rates between the medication group (sinus irrigation plus loracarbef) and surgical group (sinus irrigation plus loracarbef plus endoscopic sinus surgery). This result was similar to the result of Ragab et al,141 which showed no difference in total symptom scores in the medication group (erythromycin plus nasal steroid plus nasal douche) and surgical group (endoscopic sinus surgery plus nasal steroid plus nasal douche). The Cochrane review suggested that functional endoscopic sinus surgery has not been demonstrated to confer additional benefits to those obtained by medical treatment.142 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes the epidemiology and various treatments in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Evidence for short-term use of systemic corticosteroids has been shown to be favorable in CRSwNP, but still limited in CRSsNP. Topical corticosteroids improve symptom scores in both CRS subgroups. The role of microbes in CRS is still controversial. Culture-directed antibiotics are recommended for CRSsNP with exacerbation. Long-term use of low dosage antibiotics is recommended for CRSsNP for their anti-inflammatory effects. Other emerging treatment options are also discussed.
International Journal of General Medicine 06/2013; 6:453-64. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S29977
"Uncontrolled studies have shown QoL improvement after ESS.5 Although not proven to be superior to conservative therapy, ESS seems to at least partially relieve symptoms and/or decrease inflammatory findings.2,11,12 The recurrence rate of CRS exacerbations is high, especially in patients who have nasal polyps, asthma, and/or aspirin sensitivity or occupational exposure.2,10,13 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is considered after medical therapy failure of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The balloon sinuplasty dilates the natural ostium without moving mucosa or bone. It still lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials. The aim of this retrospective controlled study was to compare the symptom outcomes after maxillary sinus surgery with either the ESS or the balloon sinuplasty technique. No previous or additional sinonasal operations were accepted.
Two hundred eight patients with CRS without nasal polyps underwent either balloon sinuplasty or ESS. The patients who met with the inclusion criteria (n = 45 in ESS group and n = 40 in balloon group) replied to a questionnaire of history factors, exacerbations, and a visual analog scale (VAS) scoring of the change in symptoms, on average 28 ± 6 (mean ± SD) months postoperatively.
The groups were identical in the response rate (64%), patient characteristics, and the improvement in all of the asked symptoms. Patients with CRS-related comorbidity and/or present occupational exposure had a statistically significantly better symptom reduction after ESS than after balloon sinusotomy. Moreover, the balloon sinusotomy group reported a statistically significant higher number of maxillary sinus punctures and antibiotic courses during the last 12 months.
ESS might be superior to balloon sinuplasty, especially in patients with risk factors. There is a need to perform more controlled studies on the treatment choices of CRS.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 11/2012; 26(6):150-6. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3828 · 1.81 Impact Factor
"It is generally accepted that CRS is treated initially with medical therapy with the aim of reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and preventing disease progression or recurrence.3,17 Many different medical protocols have been used but none have been universally accepted. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncomplicated chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is generally treated with medical therapy initially and surgery is contemplated only after medical therapy has failed. However, there is considerable variation in the medical treatment regimens used and studies defining their efficacy are few. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients treated medically who responded sufficiently well so that surgery was not required. Subgroup analysis to identify clinical features that predicted a favorable response to medical therapy was also performed. Eighty patients referred to the Otorhinolaryngology Clinic at North Shore Hospital were treated with a standardized medical therapy protocol (oral prednisone for 3 weeks, oral antibiotics and ongoing saline lavage and intranasal budesonide spray). Symptom scores were collected before and after medical therapy. Clinical features such as presence of polyps, asthma, and aspirin hypersensitivity were recorded. Failure of medical therapy was defined as the persistence of significant CRS symptoms, and those patients who failed medical therapy were offered surgery. Follow-up data were available for 72 (90%) patients. Of this group, 52.5%, (95% CI, 42.7%, 62.2%) failed to respond adequately to medical therapy and were offered surgery. The remaining patients (37.5%) were successfully treated with medical therapy and did not require surgery at the time of follow-up. The premedical therapy symptom scores were significantly higher than the postmedical therapy symptom scores (p < 0.01). The symptom scores of those patients postmedical therapy who proceeded to have surgery were significantly higher than the group who responded well to maximum medical therapy (MMT) and did not require surgery (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, or polyps between the groups failing or not failing MMT. In approximately one-third of patients with CRS, medical therapy improved symptoms sufficiently so that surgical therapy was avoided. Patients with more severe symptoms tended not to respond as well as those with less severe symptoms. Long-term follow-up is required for the group of responders to determine how many will eventually relapse.
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