Structural Organization and Chromosomal Localization of Three Human Galanin Receptor Genes
ABSTRACT Human galanin receptor subtypes GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3 are encoded by separate genes that are located on human chromosomes 18q23, 17q25.3, and 22q13.1, respectively. The exon:intron organization of the gene encoding GALR2 (GALNR2) and GALR3 (GALNR3) is conserved, with exon 1 encoding the NH2-terminus to the end of transmembrane domain 3 and exon 2 encoding the remainder of the receptor, from the second intracellular loop to the COOH-terminus. This conservation of structural organization is indicative of a common evolutionary origin for GALNR2 and GALNR3. The exon:intron organization of the gene encoding GALR1 (GALNR1) is different from that of GALNR2 and GALNR3, with exon 1 encoding the NH2-terminus to the end of transmembrane domain 5, exon 2 encoding the third intracellular loop, and exon 3 encoding the remainder of the receptor, from transmembrane domain 6 to the COOH-terminus. The structural organization of GALNR1 suggests convergent evolution for this gene and represents a structural organization that is unique among genes encoding G-protein-coupled receptors.