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Jen Y, Manova K, Benezra R.. Expression patterns of Id1, Id2, and Id3 are highly related but distinct from that of Id4 during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Dyn 207: 235-252

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021
Developmental Dynamics (Impact Factor: 2.67). 11/1996; 207(3):235 - 252. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199611)207:3<235::AID-AJA1>3.0.CO;2-I

ABSTRACT The murine dominant negative helix-loop-helix (dnHLH) proteins inhibit the activities of bHLH transcription factors in diverse cell lineages (Benezra et al. [1990] Cell 61:49–59; Christy et al [1991] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:1815–1819; Sun et al [1991] Mol. Cell Biol. 11: 5603–5611; Riechmann et al. [1994] Nucleic Acids Res. 22:749–755). Currently, there are four members in the dnHLH family, Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. In this report, we have performed a detailed comparative in situ hybridization analysis to examine their expression pattern during post-gastrulational mouse development. Id1, 2, and 3 are expressed in multiple tissues, whereas Id4 expression can only be detected in neuronal tissues and in the ventral portion of the epithelium of the developing stomach. The regions where Id1–3 genes are expressed, such as gut, lung, kidney, tooth, whisker, and several glandular structures, are undergoing active morphogenetic activities. The expression patterns of Id1, 2, and 3 overlap in many organs, except in the tissues derived from primitive gut. In the latter, Id1 and Id3 signals are detected in the mesenchyme surrounding the epithelium, whereas Id2 is expressed within the epithelium. The difference in the patterns of expressions of Id1–3 and Id4 suggest that the dominant negative transcriptional activity of these two subclasses of the Id family may have different physiological consequences. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "Manipulations of vertebrate PCP genes lead to developmental defects within the mammalian kidney (reviewed by Carroll and Yu, 2012). Id1-3 are expressed within the developing mouse kidney and in rat cultured kidney glomerular mesangial cells (Jen et al., 1996). If Emc/Id proteins are shown to play a conserved role in D/V patterning then considerable light might soon be shed on mammalian development and disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the seminal events in the history of a tissue is the establishment of the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral (D/V) and proximal-distal axes. Axis formation is important for the regional specification of a tissue and allows cells along the different axes to obtain directional and positional information. Within the Drosophila retina, D/V axis formation is essential to ensure that each unit eye first adopts the proper chiral form and then rotates precisely 90° in the correct direction. These two steps are important because the photoreceptor array must be correctly aligned with the neurons of the optic lobe. Defects in chirality and/or ommatidial rotation will lead to disorganization of the photoreceptor array, misalignment of retinal and optic lobe neurons, and loss of visual acuity. Loss of the helix-loop-helix protein Extramacrochaetae (Emc) leads to defects in both ommatidial chirality and rotation. Here, we describe a new role for emc in eye development in patterning the D/V axis. We show that the juxtaposition of dorsal and ventral fated tissue in the eye leads to an enrichment of emc expression at the D/V midline. emc expression at the midline can be eliminated when D/V patterning is disrupted and can be induced in situations in which ectopic boundaries are artificially generated. We also show that emc functions downstream of Notch signaling to maintain the expression of four-jointed along the midline. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
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    • "Nevertheless, we provide experimental evidence that at least several novel Y1H- identified interactions have potential in vivo relevance, notably those involving the Mmp9 promoter and the Mcts2- Id1 enhancer. The latter regulatory element is located between B0.7 and 1.4 kb upstream of the gene coding for the HLH domain-containing inhibitor of DNA binding 1 protein, Id1, and yields a virtually identical expression pattern as Id1 based on findings by Jen et al (1996), suggesting that it mediates its transcription. Here, we exploited the mapping resolution offered by MARE to delineate a small DNA segment within this enhancer, which controls the in vivo activity of this regulatory element. "
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    ABSTRACT: The comprehensive mapping of gene promoters and enhancers has significantly improved our understanding of how the mammalian regulatory genome is organized. An important challenge is to elucidate how these regulatory elements contribute to gene expression by identifying their trans-regulatory inputs. Here, we present the generation of a mouse-specific transcription factor (TF) open-reading frame clone library and its implementation in yeast one-hybrid assays to enable large-scale protein-DNA interaction detection with mouse regulatory elements. Once specific interactions are identified, we then use a microfluidics-based method to validate and precisely map them within the respective DNA sequences. Using well-described regulatory elements as well as orphan enhancers, we show that this cross-platform pipeline characterizes known and uncovers many novel TF-DNA interactions. In addition, we provide evidence that several of these novel interactions are relevant in vivo and aid in elucidating the regulatory architecture of enhancers.
    Molecular Systems Biology 08/2013; 9:682. DOI:10.1038/msb.2013.38 · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Id3 knockout mice are viable and no lung defect has been reported (Pan et al., 1999). The lack of an apparent developmental phenotype is likely due to its redundancy with Id1, which shows overlapping expression patterns with Id3 throughout the embryo, including in the mesenchyme of the lung (Jen et al., 1996). "
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