Macrophages in the embryo and beyond: Much more than just giant phagocytes
ABSTRACT Originally recognized as an essential part of the innate and acquired immune systems, macrophages emerged as omnipresent and influential regulators of embryo- and organo-genesis, as well as of tissue and tumor growth. Macrophages are present essentially in all tissues, beginning with embryonic development and, in addition to their role in host defense and in the clearance of apoptotic cells, are being increasingly recognized for their trophic function and role in regeneration. Some tissue macrophages are also found to posses a substantial potential for autonomous self-renewal. Macrophages are associated with a significant proportion of malignant tumors and are widely recognized for their angiogenesis-promoting and trophic roles, making them one of the new promising targets for cancer therapies. Recent expression profiling of embryonic macrophages from different tissues revealed remarkable consistency of their gene expression profiles, independent of their tissue of origin, as well as their similarities with tumor-associated macrophages. Macrophages are also capable of fusion with other cells in tissue repair and metastasizing tumors, as well as with each other in the immune response and osteoclastogenesis. genesis 46:447–462, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: The combined use of the new technologies of multiphoton-based intravital imaging, the chemotaxis-mediated collection of invasive cells, and high sensitivity expression profiling has allowed the correlation of the behavior of invasive tumor cells in vivo with their gene expression patterns. New insights have resulted including a gene expression signature for invasive cells and the tumor microenvironment invasion model. This model proposes that tumor invasion and metastasis can be studied as a problem resembling normal morphogenesis. We discuss how these new insights may lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of the invasive behavior of tumor cells in vivo, which may result in new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of metastasis.Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2005; 21:695-718. · 17.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interactions between mammary epithelial and mesenchymal cells including fibroblasts and adipocytes are crucial for the proper postnatal development of the mammary ductal tree. Often overlooked, however, are the migrant cells that enter tissues at different stages of development. In this paper we identify two such cell types, macrophages and eosinophils, that are recruited around the growing terminal end buds (TEBs) during postnatal development. An important role for leukocytes in mammary gland ductal outgrowth is first demonstrated by depleting mice of leukocytes using sub-lethal (gamma)-irradiation. This treatment results in a curtailment of mammary gland epithelial development that is completely rescued by bone-marrow transplantation, concurrent with a restoration of macrophage and eosinophil recruitment around the growing ducts. Using mice homozygous for a null mutation in the gene for CSF1 (Csfm(op)/Csfm(op)), the major growth factor for macrophages, we show that in the absence of CSF1, the population of macrophages in mammary glands is depleted. In this mutant, the formation of TEBs, their outgrowth into the fat pad and the branching of the resultant ducts are all impaired. Similarly, by using mice homozygous for a null mutation in the gene for eotaxin, a major chemokine for local recruitment of eosinophils in tissue, we identify eotaxin as the necessary and sufficient chemokine responsible for eosinophil recruitment around TEBs. In the absence of eosinophils, mammary gland branch formation and to a lesser extent TEB formation are reduced. Our data show that CSF1-regulated macrophages, in collaboration with eotaxin-regulated eosinophils, have essential and complementary functions in regulating the branching morphogenesis of the mammary gland.Development 07/2000; 127(11):2269-82. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death and the efficient clearance of dying cells are essential mechanisms to control tissue homeostasis and to eliminate potential autoantigens. Numerous alterations on the surfaces of dying cells define a highly characteristic membrane signature and enable an unequivocal distinction from vital cells. This way, phagocytosis is initiated and signalling events induced which minimize inflammatory reactions. Therefore, the use of proteins interfering with the clearance process may open up new vistas to improve immunization strategies and may help to understand the mechanisms of autoimmune diseases.Autoimmunity 07/2009; 40(4):254-259. · 2.77 Impact Factor