Article

Macrophages in the embryo and beyond: Much more than just giant phagocytes

Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases (CRC-CID), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
genesis (Impact Factor: 2.04). 08/2008; 46(9):447 - 462. DOI: 10.1002/dvg.20417

ABSTRACT Originally recognized as an essential part of the innate and acquired immune systems, macrophages emerged as omnipresent and influential regulators of embryo- and organo-genesis, as well as of tissue and tumor growth. Macrophages are present essentially in all tissues, beginning with embryonic development and, in addition to their role in host defense and in the clearance of apoptotic cells, are being increasingly recognized for their trophic function and role in regeneration. Some tissue macrophages are also found to posses a substantial potential for autonomous self-renewal. Macrophages are associated with a significant proportion of malignant tumors and are widely recognized for their angiogenesis-promoting and trophic roles, making them one of the new promising targets for cancer therapies. Recent expression profiling of embryonic macrophages from different tissues revealed remarkable consistency of their gene expression profiles, independent of their tissue of origin, as well as their similarities with tumor-associated macrophages. Macrophages are also capable of fusion with other cells in tissue repair and metastasizing tumors, as well as with each other in the immune response and osteoclastogenesis. genesis 46:447–462, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

5 Bookmarks
 · 
1,354 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Lung immaturity due to preterm birth is a significant complication affecting neonatal health. Despite the detrimental effects of supplemental oxygen on alveolar formation, it remains an important treatment for infants with respiratory distress. Macrophages are traditionally associated with the propagation of inflammatory insults, however increased appreciation of their diversity has revealed essential functions in development and regeneration.Methods Macrophage regulatory cytokine Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) was investigated in a model of neonatal hyperoxia exposure, with the aim of promoting macrophages associated with alveologenesis to protect/rescue lung development and function. Neonatal mice were exposed to normoxia (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (Hyp; 65% oxygen); and administered CSF-1 (0.5 ¿g/g, daily¿×¿5) or vehicle (PBS) in two treatment regimes; 1) after hyperoxia from postnatal day (P)7-11, or 2) concurrently with five days of hyperoxia from P1-5. Lung structure, function and macrophages were assessed using alveolar morphometry, barometric whole-body plethysmography and flow cytometry.Results and discussionSeven days of hyperoxia resulted in an 18% decrease in body weight and perturbation of lung structure and function. In regime 1, growth restriction persisted in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although perturbations in respiratory function were resolved by P35. CSF-1 increased CSF-1R+/F4/80+ macrophage number by 34% at P11 compared to Hyp¿+¿PBS, but was not associated with growth or lung structural rescue. In regime 2, five days of hyperoxia did not cause initial growth restriction in the Hyp¿+¿PBS and Hyp¿+¿CSF-1 groups, although body weight was decreased at P35 with CSF-1. CSF-1 was not associated with increased macrophages, or with functional perturbation in the adult. Overall, CSF-1 did not rescue the growth and lung defects associated with hyperoxia in this model; however, an increase in CSF-1R+ macrophages was not associated with an exacerbation of lung injury. The trophic functions of macrophages in lung development requires further elucidation in order to explore macrophage modulation as a strategy for promoting lung maturation.
    Respiratory Research 09/2014; 15(1):110. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) derived from primary tumors are believed to facilitate circulating tumor cell (CTC) seeding of distant metastases, but the mechanisms of these processes are poorly understood. Although many studies have focused on the migration of CTCs, less attention has been given to TAMs that, like CTCs, derive from tumor sites. Using precision microfilters under low-flow conditions, we isolated circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs) from the peripheral blood of patients with breast, pancreatic, or prostate cancer. CAMLs, which are not found in healthy individuals, were found to express epithelial, monocytic, and endothelial protein markers and were observed bound to CTCs in circulation. These data support the hypothesis that disseminated TAMs can be used as a biomarker of advanced disease and suggest that they have a participatory role in tumor cell migration.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and is widely distributed in tissues including the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. Like c-Jun and c-Fos, ATF2 responds to stress-related stimuli and may thereby influence cell proliferation, inflammation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, neurological development and function, and skeletal remodeling. Recent studies clarify the regulatory role of ATF2 in inflammation and describe potential inhibitors of this protein. In this paper, we summarize the properties and functions of ATF2 and explore potential applications of ATF2 inhibitors as tools for research and for the development of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:950472. · 2.42 Impact Factor