Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters

Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (Impact Factor: 1.4). 11/2002; 32:49 - 59. DOI: 10.1521/suli.

ABSTRACT Suicide attempts often are impulsive, yet little is known about the characteristics of impulsive suicide. We examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among people 13–34 years of age. Attempts were considered impulsive if the respondent reported spending less than 5 minutes between the decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt. Among the 153 case-subjects, 24% attempted impulsively. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Relative to control subjects, male sex, fighting, and hopelessness distinguished impulsive cases but depression did not. Our findings suggest that inadequate control of aggressive impulses might be a greater indicator of risk for impulsive suicide attempts than depression.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the relationship between cannabis involvement and suicidal ideation (SI), plan and attempt, differentiating the latter into planned and unplanned attempt, taking into account other substance involvement and psychopathology. We used two community-based twin samples from the Australian Twin Registry, including 9583 individuals (58.5% female, aged between 27 and 40). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to assess cannabis involvement which was categorized into: (0) no cannabis use (reference category); (1) cannabis use only; (2) 1-2 cannabis use disorder symptoms; (3) 3 or more symptoms. Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted for SI and suicide attempt with or without a plan. Twin analyses examined the genetic overlap between cannabis involvement and SI. All levels of cannabis involvement were related to SI, regardless of duration (odds ratios [ORs]=1.28-2.00, p<0.01). Cannabis use and endorsing ≥3 symptoms were associated with unplanned (SANP; ORs=1.95 and 2.51 respectively, p<0.05), but not planned suicide attempts (p>0.10). Associations persisted even after controlling for other psychiatric disorders and substance involvement. Overlapping genetic (rG=0.45) and environmental (rE=0.21) factors were responsible for the covariance between cannabis involvement and SI. Cannabis involvement is associated, albeit modestly, with SI and unplanned suicide attempts. Such attempts are difficult to prevent and their association with cannabis use and cannabis use disorder symptoms requires further study, including in different samples and with additional attention to confounders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the elevated risk of suicide attempt among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is well documented, whether use of different substances is associated with varying degrees of risk remains unclear. We sought to examine the associations between substance use patterns and attempted suicide in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. Between 2004 and 2011, participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire eliciting information on socio-demographics, substance use patterns, related behaviors, and mental health markers. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between self-reported use of six common substances (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, cannabis and alcohol), associated patterns of use (chronic, occasional and none), and a recent (past six-month) suicide attempt. At baseline, of 1240 participants (median age: 39.1, 83.7% male), 71 (5.7%) reported a recent suicide attempt. Among 5621 observations collected during follow-up, 221 attempts were reported by 143 (11.5%) participants. In multivariate analyses adjusting for socio-demographics and psychosocial stressors, among primary drugs of abuse, chronic [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.97] and occasional (AOR: 1.92) cocaine use, and chronic amphetamine use (AOR: 1.96) were independently associated with attempted suicide. Among co-used substances, chronic sedative-hypnotic use was independently associated with an attempt (AOR: 2.29). No statistically significant association was found for the remaining substances. Among PWID at high risk of attempted suicide, stimulant users appear to constitute a particularly vulnerable sub-group. While the mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be elucidated, findings suggest that stimulant-using PWID should constitute a prime focus of suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 11/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.011 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The restriction of potentially lethal means during periods of high risk has been identified as one of the more promising suicide prevention strategies. The purpose of this paper is to introduce clinicians to means restriction counseling and to describe a Motivational Interviewing (MI) based approach for use with ambivalent or challenging patients. This paper examines empirical support behind legislative efforts for means restriction along with the limitations. It explains the need for means restriction counseling with adults and requisite challenges. For patients who are reluctant, it describes an MI-based approach to means restriction counseling and provides a case example. By the end of the paper, readers should be aware of the potential importance of means restriction counseling and the possible use of an MI-based approach with challenging patients. Means restriction counseling is a promising clinical intervention for suicidal patients and research on MI-based and other approaches is sorely needed.
    Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.09.004 · 1.33 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Sep 8, 2014