Article

Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters

Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (Impact Factor: 1.4). 11/2002; 32:49 - 59. DOI: 10.1521/suli.32.1.5.49.24212

ABSTRACT Suicide attempts often are impulsive, yet little is known about the characteristics of impulsive suicide. We examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among people 13–34 years of age. Attempts were considered impulsive if the respondent reported spending less than 5 minutes between the decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt. Among the 153 case-subjects, 24% attempted impulsively. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Relative to control subjects, male sex, fighting, and hopelessness distinguished impulsive cases but depression did not. Our findings suggest that inadequate control of aggressive impulses might be a greater indicator of risk for impulsive suicide attempts than depression.

3 Followers
 · 
732 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the relationship between cannabis involvement and suicidal ideation (SI), plan and attempt, differentiating the latter into planned and unplanned attempt, taking into account other substance involvement and psychopathology. We used two community-based twin samples from the Australian Twin Registry, including 9583 individuals (58.5% female, aged between 27 and 40). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to assess cannabis involvement which was categorized into: (0) no cannabis use (reference category); (1) cannabis use only; (2) 1-2 cannabis use disorder symptoms; (3) 3 or more symptoms. Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted for SI and suicide attempt with or without a plan. Twin analyses examined the genetic overlap between cannabis involvement and SI. All levels of cannabis involvement were related to SI, regardless of duration (odds ratios [ORs]=1.28-2.00, p<0.01). Cannabis use and endorsing ≥3 symptoms were associated with unplanned (SANP; ORs=1.95 and 2.51 respectively, p<0.05), but not planned suicide attempts (p>0.10). Associations persisted even after controlling for other psychiatric disorders and substance involvement. Overlapping genetic (rG=0.45) and environmental (rE=0.21) factors were responsible for the covariance between cannabis involvement and SI. Cannabis involvement is associated, albeit modestly, with SI and unplanned suicide attempts. Such attempts are difficult to prevent and their association with cannabis use and cannabis use disorder symptoms requires further study, including in different samples and with additional attention to confounders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2015; 150. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.019 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was <30 min. Stressful life events were assessed using presumptive stressful life events scale; hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample). The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%), while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%). Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%). Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann-Whitney U = 7680.5, P < 0.001), and had recollected greater number of stressors. Impulsive suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors.
    04/2015; 6(2):171-6. DOI:10.4103/0976-3147.153222
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the elevated risk of suicide attempt among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is well documented, whether use of different substances is associated with varying degrees of risk remains unclear. We sought to examine the associations between substance use patterns and attempted suicide in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. Between 2004 and 2011, participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire eliciting information on socio-demographics, substance use patterns, related behaviors, and mental health markers. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between self-reported use of six common substances (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, cannabis and alcohol), associated patterns of use (chronic, occasional and none), and a recent (past six-month) suicide attempt. At baseline, of 1240 participants (median age: 39.1, 83.7% male), 71 (5.7%) reported a recent suicide attempt. Among 5621 observations collected during follow-up, 221 attempts were reported by 143 (11.5%) participants. In multivariate analyses adjusting for socio-demographics and psychosocial stressors, among primary drugs of abuse, chronic [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.97] and occasional (AOR: 1.92) cocaine use, and chronic amphetamine use (AOR: 1.96) were independently associated with attempted suicide. Among co-used substances, chronic sedative-hypnotic use was independently associated with an attempt (AOR: 2.29). No statistically significant association was found for the remaining substances. Among PWID at high risk of attempted suicide, stimulant users appear to constitute a particularly vulnerable sub-group. While the mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be elucidated, findings suggest that stimulant-using PWID should constitute a prime focus of suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 11/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.011 · 3.28 Impact Factor