Article

Development of aquarium fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: Tumor induction in seven species

Journal of Applied Toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.17). 08/1985; 5(4):261 - 264. DOI: 10.1002/jat.2550050408

ABSTRACT For small fish species to be utilized as models for carcinogenicity testing they should be capable of developing neoplasms, preferably in multiple tissues, when exposed to known carcinogens. Seven species of small fish were exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac) and tumor development was monitored. Specimens 6–10 days old were exposed to nominal concentrations of MAM-Ac up to 100 mg l−1 for 2 h, then transferred to carcinogen-free water. Hepatic neoplasms developed in the Japanese medaka, guppy, sheepshead minnow, Gulf killifish, inland silverside, rivulus, and fathead minnow. Additionally, neoplasms occurred in other organs and tissues of the medaka (retina, various mesenchymal tissues, exocrine pancreas, kidney, and nervous tissue), guppy (mesenchymal tissue, exocrine pancreas, and kidney), and sheepshead minnow (choroid gland, mesenchymal tissues, and nervous tissue). All tumors were diagnosed in specimens within 1 year post-exposure. Early signs of liver tumors appeared in medaka and guppy at about 1 month post-exposure. These studies show that both medaka and guppy would be good models because they appear sensitive to carcinogens, develop tumors in multiple tissues and are easy to breed and maintain. Certain other small fish species also may prove to be good models because of habitat preferences, breeding strategies, or genetic attributes.

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    • "A great advantage of small aquarium fi sh for cancer bioassays has been their low background tumor incidences in comparison with mammals (Hawkins et al. 1985, 2003; Spitsbergen et al. 2000a, 2000b). Recently, we have found that water system design and diet exert profound effects on spontaneous tumor incidences in zebrafi sh. "
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    ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 06/2012; 53(2):114-25. DOI:10.1093/ilar.53.2.114 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite more than 300 million years separating the last common ancestor of fish and humans, the biology of cancer is very much the same in these two organisms. Cancer is commonly seen in fish in the wild, and straightforward assays involving water-borne carcinogen exposure have demonstrated that teleosts develop a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors in virtually all organs, with a histology closely resembling that of human tumors (Hawkins et al., 1985; Spitsbergen et al., 2000). A comparison of the human genome sequence and the soon to be completed zebrafish sequence demonstrates conservation of cell-cycle genes, tumor suppressors, and oncogenes. "
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    • "This may not be surprising since guppies are considered to have a longer life span and to be less sensitive to carcinogens than the medaka (Hawkins et al., 2003). An oft-stated attribute of small fish models is that they are very sensitive to detecting potential carcinogens (Hawkins et al., 1985, 2003). All three chemicals selected for study were considered clearly carcinogenic for rodents, causing increased cancer incidence at multiple sites in all four sex/species combinations except for NM which was positive only in female rats and male and female mice (NTP, 1993, 1996, 1997). "
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