Antioxidant and anticholinesterase constituents from the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Iris suaveolens
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Iris suaveolens. After determining total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts prepared from the rhizomes, the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was established using β-carotene–linoleic acid and CUPRAC methods. The chloroform extract which was rich in phenolic content exhibited the highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the β-carotene–linoleic acid system, and the best cupric reducing antioxidant capacity among the tested extracts. The petroleum ether extract indicated moderate anticholinesterase activity while the chloroform extract revealed significant butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (75.03 ± 1.29%). Spectroscopic methods were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds (1–13) isolated from the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Coniferaldehyde (6), having the highest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene–linoleic acid assay at 25 and 50 µg/mL, demonstrated also the best effect in the CUPRAC method among the tested compounds (1–12). 3-Hydroxyirisquinone (10) showed the best anticholinesterase activity among the tested compounds (1–4, 6–12), and coniferaldehyde exhibited almost the same butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (82.60 ± 2.33%) as galantamine (86.26 ± 0.66%). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: A recent intervention study demonstrated the occurrence of irilone as second most abundant isoflavone next to daidzein in human plasma after consumption of a red clover-based dietary supplement (RCDS) containing predominately formononetin ≫ biochanin A > irilone (12 % of these isoflavones). To elucidate the relevance of this finding, in the present study (1) the representativeness of the isoflavone composition of the RCDS and (2) the estrogenic activity of irilone were investigated. Thus, major isoflavones were quantified in eight commercially available RCDS. Furthermore, the estrogenic activities of irilone and other isoflavones were determined by marker gene expression in Ishikawa and cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells. Irilone amounted to 1.8-10.9 mg/g capsule content and 5-18 % of the three major isoflavones, respectively, demonstrating the general occurrence of irilone in RCDS. Moreover, irilone significantly induced the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) as well as AlP, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells. Furthermore, irilone significantly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Neither 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced AlP activity nor E2-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation was affected by irilone. ICI182,780 antagonized IRI-induced effects on both AlP activity and cell proliferation, suggesting an estrogen receptor agonistic mode of action. Taking into account the estrogenic activity of red clover isoflavones (formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, glycitein) and their biotransformation products (daidzein, genistein, ethylphenol) as well as published plasma levels of isoflavones after consumption of RCDS, irilone could contribute approximately 50 % of the E2 equivalents estimated for daidzein.Archives of Toxicology 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia led to the isolation of three flavonoids (1–3), one lignan (4), and three phenolic compounds (5–7). The structures of compounds 1–7 were identified by NMR data. The efficacy of all compounds was evaluated by their cytotoxic activities against nine human cancer cell lines using an in vitro assay.Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 55(3). · 0.54 Impact Factor
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