Antioxidant and anticholinesterase constituents from the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Iris suaveolens
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Iris suaveolens. After determining total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts prepared from the rhizomes, the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was established using β-carotene–linoleic acid and CUPRAC methods. The chloroform extract which was rich in phenolic content exhibited the highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the β-carotene–linoleic acid system, and the best cupric reducing antioxidant capacity among the tested extracts. The petroleum ether extract indicated moderate anticholinesterase activity while the chloroform extract revealed significant butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (75.03 ± 1.29%). Spectroscopic methods were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds (1–13) isolated from the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Coniferaldehyde (6), having the highest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene–linoleic acid assay at 25 and 50 µg/mL, demonstrated also the best effect in the CUPRAC method among the tested compounds (1–12). 3-Hydroxyirisquinone (10) showed the best anticholinesterase activity among the tested compounds (1–4, 6–12), and coniferaldehyde exhibited almost the same butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (82.60 ± 2.33%) as galantamine (86.26 ± 0.66%). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: Roots and rhizomes of many Iris species are well known as precious sources of isoflavones. They have been used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory disorders and decrease smooth muscles activity. Recent advances in their phytochemistry and phytomedicine have revealed potent anticholinesterase, antineoplastic and anti-plasmodial activities of iris constituents. Furthermore, decoctions from rhizomes have been successfully used among patients with hormone-related diseases. Except for isoflavones, the main chemical components of Iris are xanthones, quinones, flavons, terpenes and simple phenolics, with multiple biological activities. This contribution reviews the research progress of the past 30 years relating to the chemistry, recovery of secondary metabolites, their separation by means of TLC and HPLC techniques and spectral data of the most common chemical components of iris extracts. Special attention is paid to ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, LC–mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of isoflavones, flavons, xanthones and terpenes.Phytochemistry Reviews 12/2013; 14(1). DOI:10.1007/s11101-013-9333-1 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia led to the isolation of three flavonoids (1–3), one lignan (4), and three phenolic compounds (5–7). The structures of compounds 1–7 were identified by NMR data. The efficacy of all compounds was evaluated by their cytotoxic activities against nine human cancer cell lines using an in vitro assay.Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 55(3). DOI:10.1007/s13765-012-2027-3 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two endemic Cirsium species, C. leucopsis DC. and C. sipyleum O. Schwarz, and C. eriophorum (L.) Scop. growing in Turkey were investigated to establish their secondary metabolites, fatty acid compositions, and antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials. Spectroscopic methods were used to elucidate the structures of thirteen known compounds (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, vanillic acid, cis-epoxyconiferyl alcohol, syringin, balanophonin, 1'-O-methyl-balanophonin, apigenin, kaempferol-3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, taraxasterol, taraxasterol acetate, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). cis-Epoxyconiferyl alcohol and 1'-O-methyl- balanophonin were isolated for the first time from Cirsium species. Palmitic acid (47.1%) was found to be the main fatty acid of C. leucopsis, linoleic acid in both C. sipyleum (42.1%) and C. eriophorum (37.8 %). Assays of β-carotene bleaching, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium (ABTS) cation radicals, and superoxide anion radicals, as well as cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were used to determine the antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds. Vanillic acid, balanohonin, and kaempferol-3-O-aαL-rhamnopyranoside exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Taraxa-terol was a potent inhibitor of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activity, respectively.Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 11/2014; 69c(9-10):381-390. DOI:10.5560/ZNC.2014-0071 · 0.57 Impact Factor