Implementing prevention programs in high-risk environments: Application of the resiliency paradigm. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 363-373

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (Impact Factor: 1.36). 06/1997; 67(3):363 - 373. DOI: 10.1037/h0080239


Little is known about what happens when validated model prevention programs are introduced into the schools, typically without systematic evaluation and with the assumption that they will have positive impact. This study examines the outcome of such initiatives in schools at “high risk” for program failure, identifies factors related to goal attainment in both high- and low-risk school districts, and suggests practices to guide implementation of successful prevention programs.

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    • "preparing implementers to deliver an intervention with quality and fidelity (e.g., Dusenbury et al. 2003, 2005; Ennett et al. 2003; Fagan et al. 2008; Gager and Elias 1997). Although studies examining the relationship between teacher training and fidelity have shown a positive association, the relationship is weaker than might be expected (e.g., Gottfredson and Gottfredson 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HealthWise South Africa: Life Skills for Adolescents (HW) is an evidence-based substance use and sexual risk prevention program that emphasizes the positive use of leisure time. Since 2000, this program has evolved from pilot testing through an efficacy trial involving over 7,000 youth in the Cape Town area. Beginning in 2011, through 2015, we are undertaking a new study that expands HW to all schools in the Metro South Education District. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a research study designed in partnership with our South African collaborators that examines three factors hypothesized to affect the quality and fidelity of HW implementation: enhanced teacher training; teacher support, structure and supervision; and enhanced school environment. METHODS: Teachers and students from 56 schools in the Cape Town area will participate in this study. Teacher observations are the primary means of collecting data on factors affecting implementation quality. These factors address the practical concerns of teachers and schools related to likelihood of use and cost-effectiveness, and are hypothesized to be "active ingredients" related to high-quality program implementation in real-world settings. An innovative factorial experimental design was chosen to enable estimation of the individual effect of each of the three factors. RESULTS: Because this paper describes the conceptualization of our study, results are not yet available. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may have both substantive and methodological implications for advancing Type 2 translational research.
    Child and Youth Care Forum 04/2012; 41(2):119-136. DOI:10.1007/s10566-011-9164-4 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The second set of research questions pertained to the usefulness of the CT pro - cess . Even though researchers have encouraged the use of this approach ( Gager & Elias , 1997 ; Ishler et al . , 1998 ) , the way CTs operate to bring about change is not completely clear . "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated a professional learning approach using a core team (CT) model to assist primary (elementary) schools to develop whole-school collaborative conflict resolution processes. Thirteen schools were matched and randomly assigned to the enhancing relationships in school communities programme (n = 10) or a non-programme control group (n = 3). Programme schools provided a core (professional learning) team, who attended professional learning days, and disseminated programme content throughout their schools. Programme schools also received one full school staff workshop. After one year, CT participants were more likely to apply a collaborative conflict resolution model to problem scenarios and report greater knowledge and skills compared to non-programme-school control participants. Compared to the non-programme control group, non-core team programme school staff described using more cooperative approaches to handling conflict, especially when they had received more professional development from their CT. Programme school teachers taught more hours conflict resolution curriculum, and increases in hours taught by programme (but not control) teachers were associated with teacher reported increases in student understanding and use of cooperative methods. Patterns also supported a role of self-efficacy in implementation. The potential usefulness of a CT professional learning model for assisting schools to develop cooperative conflict resolution approaches was supported.
    Educational Psychology 01/2012; 33(2):1-23. DOI:10.1080/01443410.2012.708321 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Additionally, in regard to both school-and community-based interventions research and theory suggest that key community leaders may play a vital role in sustainability (Altman 1995; Elliott and Mihalic 2004; Johnson et al. 2004; Scheirer 2005). It is important to note that interventions that align with the goals and needs of the agency/school are more likely to receive broad support from administrators and staff, and thus more likely to be properly implemented and sustained (Adelman and Taylor 2000; Altman 1995; Gager and Elias 1997; Gottfredson and Gottfredson 2002; Greenberg 2004; Johnson et al. 2004; Payne et al. 2006). As a whole, these findings suggest that multiple indicators of community readiness should be taken into account when examining sustainability. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined factors associated with the predicted and actual post-funding sustainability of evidence-based interventions implemented as part of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency's Research-Based Delinquency and Violence Prevention Initiative. Correlates of predicted post-funding sustainability included program staff, overall school support, and school administrator support. Additionally, predicted post-funding sustainability was strongly associated with actual post-funding sustainability. Other correlates of actual post-funding sustainability included financial sustainability planning and aligning the intervention with the goals of the agency/school. Five years post-funding 33% of the interventions were no longer operating, 22% were operating at a reduced level, and 45% were operating at the same level or a higher level than the final year of funding. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for increasing intervention sustainability, as well as implications for future research on intervention sustainability.
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