Factors affecting solar ultraviolet irradiance measured since 1990 at Thessaloniki, Greece
ABSTRACT Factors affecting the solar spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece were investigated using measurements with single-and double-monochromator Brewer spectroradiometer, which started operating respectively in 1989 and 1993 and continue up to the present. The two data records were quality controlled, homogenized and finally merged into one dataset, which was used in the analysis. Subsets of these data corresponding to different solar zenith angles (SZAs) and to cloud-free skies were used to quantify the long-term changes in surface UV irradiance at different wavelengths, and the importance of the factors responsible for these changes is discussed. It is shown that the calculated UV changes vary with SZA due to the different atmospheric path of the photons and the dependence of the diffuse to direct irradiance ratio on the SZA. The effect of total ozone and aerosols on UV irradiance is examined and the corresponding radiation amplification factors (RAFs) at the various wavelengths are calculated. The observed changes in UV irradiance due to ozone are smaller than those expected for the changes in total ozone, suggesting that the influence of the ozone is masked by other factors. An important finding of this study is that the improvement in air quality at Thessaloniki, during the period under examination, is the main reason for the observed increase in solar UV irradiance.
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- "the AOD at the six nominal wavelengths in the UV is also retrieved from the direct irradiance measurements (Meleti et al. 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Thirty years of total ozone column (TOC) measurements conducted by a Brewer spectrophotometer, operating in Thessaloniki (40.6°) since March 1982, have been analyzed using the statistical extreme value theory for the identification of extreme TOC events. About 12 % of the total number of days with TOC measurements were identified as extreme-low and ∼15 % as extreme-high events. The influence of the extreme-low events on the annual mean TOC values is up to ∼18 DU, while the extreme-high events show lower impact (up to 12 DU). Removing the extreme events from the time series results in smoother year-to-year variability and reduction of the small long-term linear trend (−0.08 %/year) by a factor of 2. Furthermore, we examined the impact of the extreme events on the noon erythemal irradiance under clear skies, and we provide evidence that even under extreme-low TOC conditions, the UV radiation levels are determined to a great extent by the aerosol optical depth. Although the influence of aerosols is evident during all seasons, for spring and summer, the sensitivity of UV radiation is larger, probably due to the different nature of the aerosols over Thessaloniki during these seasons.Theoretical and Applied Climatology 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00704-015-1562-3 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spectral Ultraviolet (UV) measurements using a Brewer MKIII double spectroradiometer were used for the determination of the aerosol forcing efficiency (RFE) under cloud free conditions at Thessaloniki, Greece for the period 1998–2006. Using measured spectral UVA irradiance in combination with synchronous aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at 340 nm, we calculated the seasonal and the percent RFE changes with the help of radiative transfer model calculations used for cloud and aerosol free conditions reference. The calculated RFE for the 325–340 nm wavelength integral was found to be −0.71±0.30 W m−2/τs340 nm and corresponds to a mean calculated RFE% value of −15.2%±3.8% (2 σ) per unit of τs340 nm, for the whole period. This indicates a mean reduction of 15.2% of the 325–340 nm irradiance for a unit of aerosol optical depth slant column increase. Lower RFE% was found during summertime, which is a possible indication of lower absorbing aerosols. Mean AOD slant at 340 nm for the city of Thessaloniki were processed in combination with RFE% and a mean monthly UVA attenuation of ~10% for the whole period was revealed. The nine years' analysis results showed a reduction in RFE%, which provides a possible indication of the changes in the optical properties over the city area. If such changes are only due to changes in the aerosol absorbing properties, the above finding suggests a 2% per decade increase in UVA due to changes in the aerosol absorption properties, in addition to the calculated increase by 4.2%, which is attributed only to AOD decrease at Thessaloniki area over the 1998–2006 period.Annales Geophysicae 01/2009; 27(6). DOI:10.5194/angeo-27-2515-2009 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the background to the special issue of the International Journal of Remote Sensing which is being published to celebrate the 20 anniversary of the coming into effect in January 1989 of the Montreal Protocol on substances that damage the amospheric ozone layer. Starting from the discovery of ozone and the ozone layer, we recall the proposition of Molina and Rowland that man-made CFCs pose a major threat to the ozone layer. This was followed by about 15 years of scientific research, scientific discussion, intense political discussions and international negotiations which led to the formulation of the Montreal Protocol that prohibits the manufacture and use of ozone-destroying substances. The papers in this special issue of the Journal are concerned with addressing the role of remote sensing in monitoring and assessing the success, or otherwise, of the Montreal Protocol.International Journal of Remote Sensing 07/2009; 30(15):3853-3873. DOI:10.1080/01431160902821999 · 1.65 Impact Factor