Article

# CANDELS: The progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z~2

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(Impact Factor: 6.28). 06/2012; 765(2). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/104
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We combine high-resolution HST/WFC3 images with multi-wavelength photometry
to track the evolution of structure and activity of massive (log(M*) > 10)
galaxies at redshifts z = 1.4 - 3 in two fields of the Cosmic Assembly
Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). We detect compact,
star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) whose number densities, masses, sizes, and star
formation rates qualify them as likely progenitors of compact, quiescent,
massive galaxies (cQGs) at z = 1.5 - 3. At z > 2 most cSFGs have specific
star-formation rates (sSFR = 10^-9 yr^-1) half that of typical, massive SFGs at
the same epoch, and host X-ray luminous AGN 30 times (~30%) more frequently.
These properties suggest that cSFGs are formed by gas-rich processes (mergers
or disk-instabilities) that induce a compact starburst and feed an AGN, which,
in turn, quench the star formation on dynamical timescales (few 10^8 yr). The
cSFGs are continuously being formed at z = 2 - 3 and fade to cQGs by z = 1.5.
After this epoch, cSFGs are rare, thereby truncating the formation of new cQGs.
Meanwhile, down to z = 1, existing cQGs continue to enlarge to match local QGs
in size, while less-gas-rich mergers and other secular mechanisms shepherd
(larger) SFGs as later arrivals to the red sequence. In summary, we propose two
evolutionary scenarios of QG formation: an early (z > 2), fast-formation path
of rapidly-quenched cSFGs that evolve into cQGs that later enlarge within the
quiescent phase, and a slow, late-arrival (z < 2) path for SFGs to form QGs
without passing through a compact state.

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Available from: Nimish P. Hathi, Dec 23, 2013
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##### Article: CANDELS+3D-HST: compact SFGs at z~2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies
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ABSTRACT: We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/Msun)>10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2<z<3 to explore whether they are progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z~2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray bright AGN. In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally-concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies, and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs. Most compact SFGs lie either within the SFR-M main sequence (65%) or below (30%), on the expected evolutionary path towards quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either exponentially declining (tau) star formation histories (SFHs) or physically-motivated SFHs drawn from semi-analytic models (SAMs). SAMs predict longer formation timescales and older ages ~2 Gyr, which are nearly twice as old as the estimates of the tau models. While both models yield good SED fits, SAM SFHs better match the observed slope and zero point of the SFR-M main sequence. Some low-mass compact SFGs (log(M/Msun)=10-10.6) have younger ages but lower sSFRs than that of more massive galaxies, suggesting that the low-mass galaxies reach the red sequence faster. If the progenitors of compact SFGs are extended SFGs, state-of-the-art SAMs show that mergers and disk instabilities are both able to shrink galaxies, but disk instabilities are more frequent (60% versus 40%) and form more concentrated galaxies. We confirm this result via high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations.
The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 791(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/791/1/52 · 6.28 Impact Factor
• ##### Article: EVIDENCE FOR WIDE-SPREAD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN THE MOST MASSIVE z ∼ 1-2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) z ~ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS3Dspectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ~450-5300 km s–1), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M */M ☉) ~ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ~ 1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 796(1):7. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/796/1/7 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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##### Article: Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z$\gtrsim$2: High velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies
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ABSTRACT: We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift $2\leq z \leq2.5$ with star formation rates of SFR$\sim$100M$_{\odot}$ y$^{-1}$ and masses of log(M/M$_{\odot}$)$\sim10.8$. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of $\sigma_{\rm{int}}$=230$^{+40}_{-30}$ km s$^{-1}$, as measured from emission lines of H$_{\alpha}$ and [OIII], and the resultant M$_{\star}-\sigma_{\rm{int}}$ relation and M$_{\star}$$-$M$_{\rm{dyn}}$ all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at $z\sim2$, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M$_{\star}$/M$_{\rm{dyn}}$)$=-0.06\pm0.2$ dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and more evolved, i.e., more depleted in gas and dark matter ($<$13$^{+17}_{-13}$\%) than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than $\sim$300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at $z\gtrsim2$ are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by $z\sim2$.
The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 795(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/795/2/145 · 6.28 Impact Factor