Lithium treatment reduces brain injury induced by focal ischemia with partial reperfusion and the protective mechanisms dispute the importance of Akt activity

Department of Neurosurgery and Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University,USA.
Aging and Disease (Impact Factor: 3.07). 06/2012; 3(3):226-33.
Source: PubMed


Lithium is a mood stabilizer shown to have neuroprotective effects against several chronic and acute neuronal injuries, including stroke. However, it is unknown whether lithium treatment protects against brain injury post-stroke in a rat model of permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) combined with transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CCAo), a model that mimics human stroke with partial reperfusion. In addition, whether lithium treatment alters Akt activity as measured by the kinase activity assay has not been reported, although it is known to inhibit GSK3β activity. After stroke, Akt activity contributes to neuronal survival while GSK3β activity causes neuronal death. We report that a bolus of lithium injection at stroke onset robustly reduced infarct size measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining at 48 h post-stroke and inhibited cell death in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, as shown by TUNEL staining performed 24 h post-stroke. However, lithium treatment did not alter the reduction in Akt activity as measured by Akt kinase assay. We further showed that lithium did not alter phosphorylated GSK3β protein levels, or the degradation of β-catenin, a substrate of GSK3β, which is consistent with previous findings that long-term treatment is required for lithium to alter GSK3β phosphorylation. In summary, we show innovative data that lithium protects against stroke in a focal ischemia model with partial reperfusion, however, our results dispute the importance of Akt activity in the protective effects of lithium.

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    ABSTRACT: One of the remarkable discoveries in the field of psychopharmacology from late 1940s is Lithium (Li) that reminds of old but still gold. It continues to be a distinctive mood stabilizer that matches various standards recommended for mood stabilizers. Apart from this Li is also known to affect immune cell functions. Lithium response and regulations of different immune cells in bipolar patients, related immune disorders are not well defined. Here, we provide an overview of literature with regard to Li's effects on different immune cells. However, the use of Li is currently limited to bipolar disorders and there is no empirical evidence for immune cell disorders. The objective of this article is to provide the evaluations of Li responses towards the different immune cells based on the existing studies. Further, more studies are needed to understand the mechanistic basis and heterogeneous responses of Li's effect in bipolar, also unravel relative immune disorders.
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