Immunodominant antigens of Leishmania chagasi associated with protection against human visceral leishmaniasis.

Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz (CPqGM), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.57). 06/2012; 6(6):e1687. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001687
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals.
VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+), were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110-130 kDa) consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+) reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera.
Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Kinins liberated from plasma--borne kininogens, are potent innate stimulatory signals. We evaluated whether resistance to infection by Leishmania (L.) chagasi depends on activation of G-protein coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). FINDINGS: B2R -/- C57BL/6 knock-out (KOB2) and B2R+/+ C57BL/6-wild type control mice (C57) were infected with amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Thirty days after infection, the KOB2 mice showed 14% and 32% relative increases of liver (p< 0.017) and spleen weights (p<0.050), respectively, whereas liver parasite load increased 65% (p< 0.011) in relation to wild type mice. The relative weight increases of liver and spleen and the parasite load were positively correlated (R = 0.6911; p< 0.007 to R = 0.7629; p< 0.001, respectively). Conversely, we found a negative correlation between the increased liver relative weight and the weakened DTH response (a strong correlate to protection or natural resistance to VL) or the decreased levels of IgGb antibodies to leishmanial antigen. Finally, we also found that IFN-gamma secretion by splenocytes, an adaptive response that was significantly decreased in KOB2 mice (p< 0.002), was (i) negatively correlated to the increase in liver LDU (R = -0.6684; p = 0.035) and liver/body relative weight (R = -0.6946; p = 0.026) and (ii) positively correlated to serum IgG2b levels (R = 0.8817; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that mice lacking B2R display increased susceptibility to the infection by Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Our findings suggest that activation of the bradykinin/B2R pathway contributes to development of host resistance to visceral leishmaniasis.
    Parasites & Vectors 11/2012; 5(1):261. · 3.25 Impact Factor

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