We previously demonstrated that hexokinase (HK) II plays a key role in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart (Smeele et al. Circ Res 108: 1165-1169, 2011; Wu et al. Circ Res 108: 60-69, 2011). However, it is unknown whether HKII also plays a key role in I/R injury and healing thereafter in skeletal muscle, and if so, through which mechanisms. We used male wild-type (WT) and heterozygous HKII knockout mice (HKII(+/-)) and performed in vivo unilateral skeletal muscle I/R, executed by 90 min hindlimb occlusion using orthodontic rubber bands followed by 1 h, 1 day, or 14 days reperfusion. The contralateral (CON) limb was used as internal control. No difference was observed in muscle glycogen turnover between genotypes at 1 h reperfusion. At 1 day reperfusion, the model resulted in 36% initial cell necrosis in WT gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle that was doubled (76% cell necrosis) in the HKII(+/-) mice. I/R-induced apoptosis (29%) was similar between genotypes. HKII reduction eliminated I/R-induced mitochondrial Bax translocation and oxidative stress at 1 day reperfusion. At 14 days recovery, the tetanic force deficit of the reperfused GM (relative to control GM) was 35% for WT, which was doubled (70%) in HKII(+/-) mice, mirroring the initial damage observed for these muscles. I/R increased muscle fatigue resistance equally in GM of both genotypes. The number of regenerating fibers in WT muscle (17%) was also approximately doubled in HKII(+/-) I/R muscle (44%), thus again mirroring the increased cell death in HKII(+/-) mice at day 1 and suggesting that HKII does not significantly affect muscle regeneration capacity. Reduced HKII was also associated with doubling of I/R-induced fibrosis. In conclusion, reduced muscle HKII protein content results in impaired muscle functionality during recovery from I/R. The impaired recovery seems to be mainly a result of a greater susceptibility of HKII(+/-) mice to the initial I/R-induced necrosis (not apoptosis), and not a HKII-related deficiency in muscle regeneration.
"It has been proposed, in cellular studies employing oxidant agents, that mtHKII may be cytoprotective through structural opposition to the mitochondrial binding of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax or Bad (Pastorino et al., 2002). However, we and others have been unable to show a role for Bax in mtHKII-mediated protection against IR injury in isolated hearts (Smeele et al., 2011A; Pasdois et al., 2013) or skeletal muscle (Smeele et al., 2012). The purely structural basis of mtHKII cytoprotection by steric hindrance is also challenged by several studies which demonstrate that glucose must be present in order for HK to offer protection against cell death (Gottlob et al., 2001; Mergenthaler et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrially-bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) has long been known to confer cancer cells with their resilience against cell death. More recently, mtHKII has emerged as a powerful protector against cardiac cell death. mtHKII protects against IR injury in skeletal muscle and heart, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling, and is one of the major end-effectors through which ischemic preconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mechanisms of mtHKII cardioprotection against reperfusion injury entail the maintenance of regulated OMM permeability during ischemia and reperfusion resulting in stabilisation of mitochondrial membrane potential, the prevention of OMM breakage and cytochrome C release, and reduced ROS production. Increasing mtHK may also have important metabolic consequences, such as improvement of glucose-induced insulin release, prevention of acidosis through enhanced coupling of glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Deficiencies in expression and distorted cellular signalling of HKII may contribute to the altered sensitivity of diabetes to cardiac ischemic diseases. The interaction of HKII with the mitochondrion constitutes a powerful endogenous molecular mechanism to protect against cell death in almost all cell types examined (neurons, tumours, kidney, lung, skeletal muscle, heart). The challenge is now to harness mtHKII in the treatment of infarction, stroke, elective surgery and transplantation. Remote ischemic preconditioning, metformin administration and miR-155/miR-144 manipulations are potential means of doing just that.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; 171(8). DOI:10.1111/bph.12363 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported to alter the cardiac response to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In addition, cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is often impaired in diabetes. We have previously shown that the subcellular localisation of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) is causally related to IR injury and IPC protective potential. Especially the binding of HK to mitochondria and prevention of HK solubilisation (HK detachment from mitochondria) during ischemia confers cardioprotection. It is unknown whether diabetes affects HK localisation during IR and IPC as compared to non-diabetes. In this study we hypothesize that DM alters cellular trafficking of hexokinase in response to IR and IPC, possibly explaining the altered response to IR and IPC in diabetic heart. Control (CON) and type I diabetic (DM) rat hearts (65 mg/kg streptozotocin, 4 weeks) were isolated and perfused in Langendorff-mode and subjected to 35 min I and 30 min R with or without IPC (3 times 5 min I). Cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions were obtained at (1) baseline, i.e. after IPC but before I, (2) 35 min I, (3) 5 min R and (4) 30 min R. DM improved rate-pressure product recovery (RPP; 71 ± 10 % baseline (DM) versus 9 ± 1 % baseline (CON) and decreased contracture (end-diastolic pressure: 24 ± 8 mmHg (DM) vs 77 ± 4 mmHg (CON)) after IR as compared to control, and was associated with prevention of HK solubilisation at 35 min I. IPC improved cardiac function in CON but not in DM hearts. IPC in CON prevented HK solubilisation at 35 min I and at 5 min R, with a trend for increased mitochondrial HK. In contrast, the non-effective IPC in DM was associated with solubilisation of HK and decreased mitochondrial HK at early reperfusion and a reciprocal behaviour at late reperfusion. We conclude that type I DM significantly altered cellular HK translocation patterns in the heart in response to IR and IPC, possibly explaining altered response to IR and IPC in diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As mediators of the first enzymatic step in glucose metabolism, hexokinases (HKs) orchestrate a variety of catabolic and anabolic uses of glucose, regulate antioxidant power by generating NADPH for glutathione reduction, and modulate cell death processes by directly interacting with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here we summarize the current state-of-knowledge about HKs and their role in protecting the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, reviewing: 1) the properties of different HK isoforms and how their function is regulated by their subcellular localization; 2) how HKs modulate glucose metabolism and energy production during I/R; 3) the molecular mechanisms by which HKs influence mPTP opening and cellular injury during I/R; 4) how different metabolic and HK profiles correlate with susceptibility to I/R injury and cardioprotective efficacy in cancer cells, neonatal hearts, and normal, hypertrophied and failing adult hearts, and how these difference may guide novel therapeutic strategies to limit I/R injury in the heart. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Insert Special Issue Title Mitochondria.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2014; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.09.020 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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