The Potential for Respiratory Droplet-Transmissible A/H5N1 Influenza Virus to Evolve in a Mammalian Host
ABSTRACT Avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses pose a pandemic threat. As few as five amino acid substitutions, or four with reassortment, might be sufficient for mammal-to-mammal transmission through respiratory droplets. From surveillance data, we found that two of these substitutions are common in A/H5N1 viruses, and thus, some viruses might require only three additional substitutions to become transmissible via respiratory droplets between mammals. We used a mathematical model of within-host virus evolution to study factors that could increase and decrease the probability of the remaining substitutions evolving after the virus has infected a mammalian host. These factors, combined with the presence of some of these substitutions in circulating strains, make a virus evolving in nature a potentially serious threat. These results highlight critical areas in which more data are needed for assessing, and potentially averting, this threat.
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ABSTRACT: Cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) precursor (HA0) by trypsin, which produces the active HA1 and HA2 complex, is a critical step for activating the avian influenza virus (AIV). However, other tryptic cleavage sites on HA might also cause HA degradation and affect the virulence. Otherwise, HA is modified by glycosylation in the host cell. The conjugated glycans on HA may hinder the antigenic epitopes, and thus prevent the virus from being recognized and attacked by the antibodies. In this study, we observed that glycosylation at the Asn-167 (N167) site on the HA1 of the H6N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 (2838V) protected Arg-201 (R201) from tryptic cleavage. The 2838V HA protein became sensitive to tryptic cleavage, whereas the glycans at N167 were removed by N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F). Furthermore, the infectivity of 2838V decreased when pretreated with PNGase-F and trypsin. Our observations suggest that the inaccessibility of the R201 residue of HA1 for tryptic cleavage, which is sterically hindered by glycosylation at N167, is a crucial factor for determining the infectivity of the AIV. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Virus Research 02/2015; 197:101-107. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.12.010 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: H5-specific monoclonal antibodies may serve as valuable tools for rapid diagnosis of H5N1 avian influenza virus. Therefore, conserved H5-specific sequences of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The two mAbs, FD6 and HE4, were strongly reactive against native HA protein and exhibited specificity for subtype H5. By epitope mapping linear epitopes of mAbs were identified that are highly conserved among influenza A virus of subtype H5. Additionally no sequence similarities to homologous regions on HA proteins of other influenza A virus subtypes (i.e. H1, H3, H7, H9) were detected by sequence alignment analysis. Both mAbs did not cross react with native or denatured HA proteins of other influenza A virus subtypes. Furthermore, using ELISA and immunofluorescence test mAb FD6 reacted only to the native H5 protein of recently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses but not to low pathogenic H5N1 isolates. In conclusion, the use of the two mAbs in non-molecular tests like antigen-capture-ELISA appears promising for detecting influenza A H5N1 virus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Virus Research 01/2015; 199. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.01.006 · 2.83 Impact Factor
- Virus Research 01/2015; · 2.83 Impact Factor