Deregulation of a Hox protein regulatory network spanning prostate cancer initiation and progression.
ABSTRACT The aberrant activity of developmental pathways in prostate cancer may provide significant insight into predicting tumor initiation and progression, as well as identifying novel therapeutic targets. To this end, despite shared androgen-dependence and functional similarities to the prostate gland, seminal vesicle cancer is exceptionally rare.
We conducted genomic pathway analyses comparing patient-matched normal prostate and seminal vesicle epithelial cells to identify novel pathways for tumor initiation and progression. Derived gene expression profiles were grouped into cancer biomodules using a protein-protein network algorithm to analyze their relationship to known oncogenes. Each resultant biomodule was assayed for its prognostic ability against publically available prostate cancer patient gene array datasets.
Analyses show that the embryonic developmental biomodule containing four homeobox gene family members (Meis1, Meis2, Pbx1, and HoxA9) detects a survival difference in a set of watchful-waiting patients (n = 172, P = 0.05), identify men who are more likely to recur biochemically postprostatectomy (n = 78, P = 0.02), correlate with Gleason score (r = 0.98, P = 0.02), and distinguish between normal prostate, primary tumor, and metastatic disease. In contrast to other cancer types, Meis1, Meis2, and Pbx1 expression is decreased in poor-prognosis tumors, implying that they function as tumor suppressor genes for prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical staining documents nuclear basal-epithelial and stromal Meis2 staining, with loss of Meis2 expression in prostate tumors.
These data implicate deregulation of the Hox protein cofactors Meis1, Meis2, and Pbx1 as serving a critical function to suppress prostate cancer initiation and progression.
Article: The role of CD133 in normal human prostate stem cells and malignant cancer-initiating cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Resolving the specific cell of origin for prostate cancer is critical to define rational targets for therapeutic intervention and requires the isolation and characterization of both normal human prostate stem cells and prostate cancer-initiating cells (CIC). Single epithelial cells from fresh normal human prostate tissue and prostate epithelial cell (PrEC) cultures derived from them were evaluated for the presence of subpopulations expressing stem cell markers and exhibiting stem-like growth characteristics. When epithelial cell suspensions containing cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133+ are inoculated in vivo, regeneration of stratified human prostate glands requires inductive prostate stromal cells. PrEC cultures contain a small subpopulation of CD133+ cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified CD133+ PrECs self-renew and regenerate cell populations expressing markers of transit-amplifying cells (DeltaNp63), intermediate cells (prostate stem cell antigen), and neuroendocrine cells (CD56). Using a series of CD133 monoclonal antibodies, attachment and growth of CD133+ PrECs requires surface expression of full-length glycosylated CD133 protein. Within a series of androgen receptor-positive (AR+) human prostate cancer cell lines, CD133+ cells are present at a low frequency, self-renew, express AR, generate phenotypically heterogeneous progeny negative for CD133, and possess an unlimited proliferative capacity, consistent with CD133+ cells being CICs. Unlike normal adult prostate stem cells, prostate CICs are AR+ and do not require functional CD133. This suggests that (a) AR-expressing prostate CICs are derived from a malignantly transformed intermediate cell that acquires "stem-like activity" and not from a malignantly transformed normal stem cell and (b) AR signaling pathways are a therapeutic target for prostate CICs.Cancer Research 01/2009; 68(23):9703-11. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Conversion from a paracrine to an autocrine mechanism of androgen-stimulated growth during malignant transformation of prostatic epithelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Normal adult prostate epithelium of both human and rat origin was transplanted with Matrigel into intact or androgen-ablated (i.e., castrated) nude mice. Within these transplants, an influx of mouse mesenchymal cells was one of the earliest events to occur resulting in the development of a collar of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts surrounding the transplanted epithelium. A subset of these surrounding stromal cells express androgen receptor (AR). The surrounded transplanted epithelium initially expresses high molecular weight cytokeratins characteristic of prostatic basal cells and AR. In both intact and androgen-ablated hosts, this epithelium subsequently develops a patent lumen producing a rudimentary glandular acini. Only in the nonablated hosts, however, do these rudimentary acini undergo a further proliferative growth phase, as determined by Ki67 immunocytochemical stainings and the development of a low molecular weight cytokeratin positive layer of luminal (i.e., secretory) epithelial cells. Because AR is expressed in both the donor epithelium and host (i.e., mouse) stromal cells, this androgen-stimulated growth response could involve either autocrine pathways initiated within donor normal adult epithelial cells themselves or paracrine pathways initiated within the AR-expressing subset of mouse stromal cells. To resolve this issue, mice carrying the testicular feminized mutation in the X-linked AR gene were cross-bred to AR-wt nude mice to produce AR-null nude male mice. None of the cells in these AR-null nude male mice express functional AR protein. Therefore, these animals can be used to prevent any possibility of host stromal cell paracrine involvement in initiating an androgen-stimulated growth response when normal adult or malignant prostatic epithelial cells are transplanted into these null hosts. In these AR-null nude male mice, the androgen-stimulated growth of normal adult prostatic epithelial cells did not occur (i.e., androgen-induced growth response of normal prostatic epithelial cells requires stromal cell paracrine involvement). In contrast, using four different prostatic cancer models (i.e., human PC-82, human LNCaP, human LAPC-4, and rat R3327G), the androgen-stimulated growth of prostatic cancer cells occurred identically in both AR-null and AR-wt nude male mice (i.e., a direct autocrine mechanism is responsible for androgen-stimulated growth of malignant prostatic epithelial cells). In summary, a fundamental change in the mechanism for androgen-stimulated growth occurs during the transformation from normal to malignant prostatic epithelial cells.Cancer Research 08/2001; 61(13):5038-44. · 7.86 Impact Factor