Pin1-independent leaf initiation in Arabidopsis.

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 6.56). 06/2012; 159(4):1501-10. DOI: 10.1104/pp.112.200402
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phyllotaxis, the regular arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, is a key feature of plant architecture. Current models propose that the spatiotemporal regulation of organ initiation is controlled by a positive feedback loop between the plant hormone auxin and its efflux carrier PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1). Consequently, pin1 mutants give rise to naked inflorescence stalks with few or no flowers, indicating that PIN1 plays a crucial role in organ initiation. However, pin1 mutants do produce leaves. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms controlling leaf initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosettes, we have characterized the vegetative pin1 phenotype in detail. We show that although the timing of leaf initiation in vegetative pin1 mutants is variable and divergence angles clearly deviate from the canonical 137° value, leaves are not positioned at random during early developmental stages. Our data further indicate that other PIN proteins are unlikely to explain the persistence of leaf initiation and positioning during pin1 vegetative development. Thus, phyllotaxis appears to be more complex than suggested by current mechanistic models.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters, especially in new species. Finally, functional difference of PIN1 is likely to be present in angiosperm because the positive selection is occurred in one branch of Poaceae.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89289. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Land plants develop vascular tissues that enable the long-distance transport of water and nutrients in xylem and phloem, provide mechanical support for their vertical growth, and produce cells in radial growth. Vascular tissues are produced in many parts of the plant and during different developmental stages. Early vascular development is focused in procambial meristems, and in some species it continues during the secondary phase of plant development in cambial meristems. In this review, we highlight recent progress in understanding procambial development. This involves the analysis of stem cell-like properties of procambial tissues, specification of xylem and phloem, and differentiation of the conductive tissues. Several major plant hormones, small-RNA species, and transcriptional networks play a role in vascular development. We describe current approaches to integrating these networks as well as their potential role in explaining the diversity and evolution of plant vascular systems. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 65 is April 29, 2014. Please see for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Plant Biology 02/2014; · 18.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meristems are centers of cell proliferation with a defined internal structure that is dynamically perpetuated throughout a plant's life although its constituent cells constantly change. When progressing from stem cell state towards differentiation, individual cells adopt developmental programs according to their current position within the meristem provided by signals from neighboring cells. In recent years, progress has been made in the identification of signaling pathways and their integration into mechanistic networks.
    Current opinion in plant biology 02/2014; 17C:96-102. · 10.33 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014