Control of electron transfer and catalysis in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) by a hinge connecting its FMN and FAD-NADPH domains.
ABSTRACT In nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs), two flexible hinges connect the FMN domain to the rest of the enzyme and may guide its interactions with partner domains for electron transfer and catalysis. We investigated the role of the FMN-FAD/NADPH hinge in rat neuronal NOS (nNOS) by constructing mutants that either shortened or lengthened this hinge by 2, 4, and 6 residues. Shortening the hinge progressively inhibited electron flux through the calmodulin (CaM)-free and CaM-bound nNOS to cytochrome c, whereas hinge lengthening relieved repression of electron flux in CaM-free nNOS and had no impact or slowed electron flux through CaM-bound nNOS to cytochrome c. How hinge length influenced heme reduction depended on whether enzyme flavins were pre-reduced with NADPH prior to triggering heme reduction. Without pre-reduction, changing the hinge length was deleterious; with pre-reduction, the hinge shortening was deleterious, and hinge lengthening increased heme reduction rates beyond wild type. Flavin fluorescence and stopped-flow kinetic studies on CaM-bound enzymes suggested hinge lengthening slowed the domain-domain interaction needed for FMN reduction. All hinge length changes lowered NO synthesis activity and increased uncoupled NADPH consumption. We conclude that several aspects of catalysis are sensitive to FMN-FAD/NADPH hinge length and that the native hinge allows a best compromise among the FMN domain interactions and associated electron transfer events to maximize NO synthesis and minimize uncoupled NADPH consumption.
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ABSTRACT: Diflavin reductases are essential proteins capable of splitting the two-electron flux from reduced pyridine nucleotides to a variety of one electron acceptors. The primary sequence of diflavin reductases shows a conserved domain organization harboring two catalytic domains bound to the FAD and FMN flavins sandwiched by one or several non-catalytic domains. The catalytic domains are analogous to existing globular proteins: the FMN domain is analogous to flavodoxins while the FAD domain resembles ferredoxin reductases. The first structural determination of one member of the diflavin reductases family raised some questions about the architecture of the enzyme during catalysis: both FMN and FAD were in perfect position for interflavin transfers but the steric hindrance of the FAD domain rapidly prompted more complex hypotheses on the possible mechanisms for the electron transfer from FMN to external acceptors. Hypotheses of domain reorganization during catalysis in the context of the different members of this family were given by many groups during the past twenty years. This review will address the recent advances in various structural approaches that have highlighted specific dynamic features of diflavin reductases.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(11):15012-41. DOI:10.3390/ijms131115012 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16∶0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18∶2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100017. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100017 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is required in mammals to generate NO for regulating blood pressure, synaptic response and immune defense. NOS is a large homodimer with well-characterized reductase and oxygenase domains that coordinate a multi-step, inter-domain electron transfer mechanism to oxidize L-arginine and generate NO. Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) binds between the reductase and oxygenase domains to activate NO synthesis. While NOS has long been proposed to adopt distinct conformations that alternate between interflavin and FMN-heme electron transfer steps, structures of the holoenzyme have remained elusive and the CaM-bound arrangement is unknown. Here we have applied single particle electron microscopy (EM) methods to characterize the full-length of the neuronal isoform (nNOS) complex and determine the structural mechanism of CaM activation. We have identified that nNOS adopts an ensemble of open and closed conformational states and CaM binding induces a dramatic rearrangement of the reductase domain. Our 3D reconstruction of the intact nNOS:CaM complex reveals a closed conformation and a cross-monomer arrangement with the FMN domain rotated away from the NADPH-FAD center, towards the oxygenase dimer. This work captures, for the first time, the reductase-oxygenase structural arrangement and the CaM-dependent release of the FMN domain that coordinates to drive electron transfer across the domains during catalysis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; 289(24). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.564005 · 4.60 Impact Factor