Interrelationship between Chronic Kidney Disease and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases.
ABSTRACT An estimated 11% of the U.S. population has chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain high among individuals with CKD and the higher mortality from cardiovascular disease persists even after adjusting for most of the traditional risk factors, suggesting the possible contributions of uremia-related, nontraditional risk factors. This has led to the current understanding that the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in CKD involves a complex interplay of both the traditional as well as nontraditional, uremia-related risk factors. Given the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, patients with CKD should be a target for aggressive cardiovascular risk reduction.