Mutation frequencies of X‐linked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium
ABSTRACT The EuroMRX family cohort consists of about 400 families with non-syndromic and 200 families with syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from these families were tested for mutations in the coding sequence of 90 known and candidate XLMR genes. In total, 73 causative mutations were identified in 21 genes. For 42% of the families with obligate female carriers, the mental retardation phenotype could be explained by a mutation. There was no difference between families with (lod score >2) or without (lod score <2) significant linkage to the X chromosome. For families with two to five affected brothers (brother pair=BP families) only 17% of the MR could be explained. This is significantly lower (P=0.0067) than in families with obligate carrier females and indicates that the MR in about 40% (17/42) of the BP families is due to a single genetic defect on the X chromosome. The mutation frequency of XLMR genes in BP families is lower than can be expected on basis of the male to female ratio of patients with MR or observed recurrence risks. This might be explained by genetic risk factors on the X chromosome, resulting in a more complex etiology in a substantial portion of XLMR patients. The EuroMRX effort is the first attempt to unravel the molecular basis of cognitive dysfunction by large-scale approaches in a large patient cohort. Our results show that it is now possible to identify 42% of the genetic defects in non-syndromic and syndromic XLMR families with obligate female carriers. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Human mutations in PQBP1, a molecule involved in transcription and splicing, result in a reduced but architecturally normal brain. Examination of a conditional Pqbp1-knockout (cKO) mouse with microcephaly failed to reveal either abnormal centrosomes or mitotic spindles, increased neurogenesis from the neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) pool or increased cell death in vivo. Instead, we observed an increase in the length of the cell cycle, particularly for the M phase in NSPCs. Corresponding to the developmental expression of Pqbp1, the stem cell pool in vivo was decreased at E10 and remained at a low level during neurogenesis (E15) in Pqbp1-cKO mice. The expression profiles of NSPCs derived from the cKO mouse revealed significant changes in gene groups that control the M phase, including anaphase-promoting complex genes, via aberrant transcription and RNA splicing. Exogenous Apc4, a hub protein in the network of affected genes, recovered the cell cycle, proliferation, and cell phenotypes of NSPCs caused by Pqbp1-cKO. These data reveal a mechanism of brain size control based on the simple reduction of the NSPC pool by cell cycle time elongation. Finally, we demonstrated that in utero gene therapy for Pqbp1-cKO mice by intraperitoneal injection of the PQBP1-AAV vector at E10 successfully rescued microcephaly with preserved cortical structures and improved behavioral abnormalities in Pqbp1-cKO mice, opening a new strategy for treating this intractable developmental disorder. Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 July 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.69 INTRODUCTIONMolecular Psychiatry 07/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.69 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental defects in humans represent a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we report the genetic and functional dissection of a multigenerational pedigree with an X-linked syndromic disorder hallmarked by microcephaly, growth retardation, and seizures. Using an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) next-generation sequencing diagnostic panel, we identified a novel missense mutation in the gene encoding 60S ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), a locus associated previously with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); the p.K78E change segregated with disease under an X-linked recessive paradigm while, consistent with causality, carrier females exhibited skewed X inactivation. To examine the functional consequences of the p.K78E change, we modeled RPL10 dysfunction in zebrafish. We show that endogenous rpl10 expression is augmented in anterior structures, and that suppression decreases head size in developing morphant embryos, concomitant with reduced bulk translation and increased apoptosis in the brain. Subsequently, using in vivo complementation, we demonstrate that p.K78E is a loss-of-function variant. Together, our findings suggest that a mutation within the conserved N-terminal end of RPL10, a protein in close proximity to the peptidyl transferase active site of the 60S ribosomal subunit, causes severe defects in brain formation and function.Genetics 10/2014; 198(2):723-33. DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.168211 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Global developmental delay and intellectual disability are relatively common pediatric conditions. This report describes the recommended clinical genetics diagnostic approach. The report is based on a review of published reports, most consisting of medium to large case series of diagnostic tests used, and the proportion of those that led to a diagnosis in such patients. Chromosome microarray is designated as a first-line test and replaces the standard karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization subtelomere tests for the child with intellectual disability of unknown etiology. Fragile X testing remains an important first-line test. The importance of considering testing for inborn errors of metabolism in this population is supported by a recent systematic review of the literature and several case series recently published. The role of brain MRI remains important in certain patients. There is also a discussion of the emerging literature on the use of whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic test in this population. Finally, the importance of intentional comanagement among families, the medical home, and the clinical genetics specialty clinic is discussed.Pediatrics 08/2014; 134(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1839 · 5.30 Impact Factor