"A consistent finding among individuals with ID has been the excess of males
, indicating a role of defects on the X-chromosome. Mutations in X-linked genes contribute for 10%-15% of ID cases in males
. There is substantial evidence that X-linked ID (XLID) is genetically an extremely heterogeneous disorder
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by substantial impairment in cognitive abilities, social and behavioral adaptive skills. Next generation sequencing technologies have become a powerful approach for identifying molecular gene mutations relevant for diagnosis.Methods & objectives: Enrichment of X-chromosome specific exons and massively parallel sequencing was performed for identifying the causative mutations in 14 Finnish families, each of them having several males affected with intellectual disability of unknown cause.
We found four novel mutations in known XLID genes. Two mutations; one previously reported missense mutation (c.1111C > T), and one novel frameshift mutation (c. 990_991insGCTGC) were identified in SLC16A2, a gene that has been linked to Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). One novel missense mutation (c.1888G > C) was found in GRIA3 and two novel splice donor site mutations (c.357 + 1G > C and c.985 + 1G > C) were identified in the DLG3 gene. One missense mutation (c.1321C > T) was identified in the candidate gene ZMYM3 in three affected males with a previously unrecognized syndrome characterized by unique facial features, aortic stenosis and hypospadia was detected. All of the identified mutations segregated in the corresponding families and were absent in > 100 Finnish controls and in the publicly available databases. In addition, a previously reported benign variant (c.877G > A) in SYP was identified in a large family with nine affected males in three generations, who have a syndromic phenotype.
All of the mutations found in this study are being reported for the first time in Finnish families with several affected male patients whose etiological diagnoses have remained unknown to us, in some families, for more than 30 years. This study illustrates the impact of X-exome sequencing to identify rare gene mutations and the challenges of interpreting the results. Further functional studies are required to confirm the cause of the syndromic phenotypes associated with ZMYM3 and SYP in this study.
"The Aristaless Related homeoboX (ARX) gene is one of the most important genes responsible for X-Linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) [1-4]. Depending on the type of mutation, ARX gene-related loss of function leads to a pleiotropy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c.429_452dup24 of the ARX gene is a rare genetic anomaly, leading to X-Linked Intellectual Disability without brain malformation. While in certain cases c.429_452dup24 has been associated with specific clinical patterns such as Partington syndrome, the consequence of this mutation has been also often classified as "non-specific Intellectual Disability". The present work aims at a more precise description of the clinical features linked to the c.429_452dup24 mutation.
We clinically reviewed all affected patients identified in France over a five-year period, i.e. 27 patients from 12 different families. Detailed cognitive, behavioural, and motor evaluation, as well as standardized videotaped assessments of oro-lingual and gestural praxis, were performed. In a sub-group of 13 ARX patients, kinematic and MRI studies were further accomplished to better characterize the motor impairment prevalent in the ARX patients group. To ensure that data were specific to the ARX gene mutation and did not result from low-cognitive functioning per se, a group of 27 age- and IQ-matched Down syndrome patients served as control.
Neuropsychological and motor assessment indicated that the c.429_452dup24 mutation constitutes a recognizable clinical syndrome: ARX patients exhibiting Intellectual Disability, without primary motor impairment, but with a very specific upper limb distal motor apraxia associated with a pathognomonic hand-grip. Patients affected with the so-called Partington syndrome, which involves major hand dystonia and orolingual apraxia, exhibit the most severe symptoms of the disorder. The particular "reach and grip" impairment which was observed in all ARX patients, but not in Down syndrome patients, was further characterized by the kinematic data: (i) loss of preference for the index finger when gripping an object, (ii) major impairment of fourth finger deftness, and (iii) a lack of pronation movements. This lack of distal movement coordination exhibited by ARX patients is associated with the loss of independent digital dexterity and is similar to the distortion of individual finger movements and posture observed in Limb Kinetic Apraxia.
These findings suggest that the ARX c.429_452dup24 mutation may be a developmental model for Limb Kinetic Apraxia.
"Three deletion and four duplication hotspots have been identified in XLIDcases [Gécz et al., 2009]. Moreover, X-exome sequencing has revealed a number of unique single nucleotide mutations in individual NS-XLID genes [de Brouwer et al., 2007; Tarpey et al., 2009], suggesting a high proportion of these variants in XLID families. "
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