Evidence that cellular immune responses to soluble and membrane associated antigens are independently regulated during human schistosomiasis mansoni
ABSTRACT We have made a comparative analysis of human cellular and antibody responses to membrane associated adult worm antigens (Mb-A), soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) and soluble egg antigens (SEA) derived from Schistosoma mansoni. Chronically infected patients with the intestinal (I) and hepatosplenic (HS) forms of the disease as well as non-infected putative immune ‘endemic normals’ (EN), were studied. We observed that the cellular responses, of individuals, to the two adult worm preparations, SWAP and Mb-A, may be distinct and can be related to the occurrence of resistance or pathology. The resistant group (EN) presented higher levels of both cellular proliferation, and IFN-γ production, in response to Mb-A as compared with SWAP whereas HS individuals presented higher levels of cellular proliferation to SWAP as compared with Mb-A. Individuals with intestinal disease had similar levels of proliferation to both antigens. The response to SEA by all groups was generally similar, and not predictive of any clinical form. The specific antibody response to the three antigens were in general higher among infected patients than in resistant EN individuals. These results support the hypothesis that the response to adult worm antigens may be pivotal in determining both the development of resistance and severity of disease.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that distinct immune response profiles can be correlated with the development/maintenance of different clinical forms of human schistosomiasis. We have previously shown that individuals with the more severe clinical forms of the disease such as those presenting different levels of fibrosis or with the hepatosplenic (HS) clinical form of the disease show significantly different immune response when compared with those with the intestinal clinical form (INT). To better understand the immune mechanisms associated with the clinical form of the schistosomiasis, in this study, we present the results of the evaluation, at a single cell level, of the cytokine patterns as well as the chemokine receptors expression by T-cell subsets after in vitro short-term stimulation with soluble egg antigens as well as the ex vivo frequency analysis of putative regulatory CD4+CD25HIGH+ T-cell subset in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We observed an increase on IL-4+, IL-5+ and IL-10+ cells both in the CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in INT and a significant decrease on the number of IL-4+, IL-5+ and IL-10+ T-lymphocytes for HS. However, patients with detectable fibrosis presented decrease on IL-10+ (both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes) and basal levels of IL-4 and IL-5. These data suggested that although INT group is under the influence of an effective immunoregulated immune response, mainly due to the high percentage of IL-10+ cells, it presents a mixed type (Type1/Type-2) immune profile. Moreover, the chemokine receptors expression demonstrated that CXCR3 and CXCR4 by CD4+ T-cells in INT may dictate the selective profile of IL-10 associated with the immunomodulatory events in human schistosomiasis. Additionally, the ex vivo analysis also suggests that higher levels of CD4+CD25HIGH+ T-cells may play a role in controlling morbidity in chronic human schistosomiasis. Taken together, these data suggest a major role of IL-10-producing CXCR4+ CD4+ T-cell subset for the asymptomatic outcome of the disease.Acta tropica 05/2008; 108(2-3):139-49. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis, caused by trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. Infection follows direct contact with freshwater harboring free-swimming larval (cercaria) forms of the parasite. Despite the existence of the highly effective antischistosome drug praziquantel (PZQ), schistosomiasis is spreading into new areas, and although it is the cornerstone of current control programs, PZQ chemotherapy does have limitations. In particular, mass treatment does not prevent reinfection. Furthermore, there is increasing concern about the development of parasite resistance to PZQ. Consequently, vaccine strategies represent an essential component for the future control of schistosomiasis as an adjunct to chemotherapy. An improved understanding of the immune response to schistosome infection, both in animal models and in humans, suggests that development of a vaccine may be possible. This review considers aspects of antischistosome protective immunity that are important in the context of vaccine development. The current status in the development of vaccines against the African (Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) and Asian (S. japonicum) schistosomes is then discussed, as are new approaches that may improve the efficacy of available vaccines and aid in the identification of new targets for immune attack.Clinical microbiology reviews 02/2008; 21(1):225-42. · 14.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe how hookworms interact with their human hosts by comparing lymphocyte phenotyping, proliferative responses, and cytokine and chemokine secretion patterns in adults who are either mono-infected with Necator americanus or egg-negative controls resident in an area of high transmission in Brazil. Cellular immune responses against crude hookworm antigen extracts from different developmental stages were evaluated simultaneously. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the standardized immune responses. Random effects multivariate regression was then used to investigate whether principal components (PC) differ between the two groups once potential confounders and effect modifiers have been accounted for. Although hookworm patients had reduced percentages of T and B cells, they had higher levels of activated CD4(+) T and CD19(+) B cells. This state of 'immune activation' coincided with lower proliferative responses, especially to third-stage larval antigen. Cytokine levels in mono-infected adults were also lower and characterized by a mixed Th1/Th2-type profile. Excretory/secretory antigen from adult worms was a potent modulator of the immune response, resulting in diminished TNF-alpha and IL-10 secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hookworm infected patients. We propose that the longevity of hookworms in their human hosts results from a stage-specific, down-modulation of the immune response.Parasite Immunology 08/2007; 29(7):347-58. · 2.21 Impact Factor