A Chinese Version of the Meaning in Caregiving Scale: An Assessment of Its Reliability and Validity
Perspectives In Psychiatric Care (Impact Factor: 0.65). 03/2009; 45(2):140 - 150. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6163.2009.00214.x
PURPOSE. To evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the Meaning in Caregiving Scale (MICS) by confirmatory factor analysis and to explore whether the MICS meets the goodness-of-fit criteria for the 3-factor model.DESIGN AND METHODS. Four hundred and eighty subjects in Taiwan were recruited. The hypothesized confirmatory factor analysis model specifies the items to measure the reordering priority, relationship fidelity, and transcendent belief as indicators of latent factors.FINDINGS. The data show that the hypothesized 3-factor model does not fit the data well and indicate that the 3 factors might share a high-order common factor. Cross-cultural issues may account for this shortcoming.PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. This scale offers better understanding around caregivers for psychiatric patients and the issues they face.
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe illness with little hope of recovery and requires long-term care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of carers who live with someone with long-term schizophrenia, within the cultural context of Taiwan. The study was conducted in a community setting in central Taiwan. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of carers. Purposive sampling was used by selecting the carers who were close relatives of the clients, had lived with the clients for at least 1 year and bore most of the responsibilities. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect the data and narratives were analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) seven-step method. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing 10 carers. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified: burdens of caring (helping clients' illness, lack of professional support and family conflicts), emotional burdens (sadness, worry and fear) and strategies of coping (cognitive and religious coping strategies). Our study supported the importance for nurses to understand the cultural aspects of mental illness, particularly the widespread cultural beliefs and patterns of help seeking behaviours, in order to provide culturally sensitive health care.Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 12/2009; 16(10):874-83. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2009.01468.x · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a scale of Taiwanese caregiver meaning. The meaning of care-giving is defined as the beliefs one holds about oneself and the care-giving experiences that affect adjustment to the care-giving role. An existing tool, the Meaning in Care-giving Scale, has been tested in Taiwan, but it showed that the construct validity was unreliable. The study was a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The instrument was developed through 20 semi-structured interviews of caregivers of mentally ill patients. A comparative method was used to analyse the text and field notes. According to the results, 29 items were designed and 318 caregivers of mentally ill patients were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient department in central Taiwan. Content and back direct content validity tests were conducted. Internal consistency, Chronbach's alpha, was used to examine the reliability, and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity. Twenty items were kept after exploratory factor analysis. They represent four factors: the benefits of care-giving, a belief in Karma, personal responsibility and a reflection on life. Cronbach's alpha value for a subscale increased from 0·68-0·84, and the total scale was 0·84. A sixty per cent (59·55%) cumulative variance can be explained by four factors. A Taiwanese caregiver meaning can be considered a useful scale for assessing the meaning of care-giving for Taiwanese caregivers of mentally ill patients. A good scale and instrument take years to develop. This study takes the first step to examine the structure of the scale, and it is worth continued testing, modification and improvements. The scale of Taiwanese caregiver meaning was developed based on certain aspects of contemporary Taiwanese culture. It can be used to provide mental health professionals new counselling knowledge to assist caregivers of mentally ill patients to adjust to their circumstances.Journal of Clinical Nursing 03/2011; 20(15-16):2355-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03581.x · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Informal dementia caregiving has traditionally been perceived as an extremely stressful process; however, more recent research has started to focus on the positive aspects of providing care. Studies indicate that caregivers who derive something positive out of caregiving have better well-being. However, there has been little exploration of the factors linked to caregivers identifying positive aspects of providing care. The aim of the current study was to explore the predictors of finding meaning in caregiving. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study in which the respondents were 447 caregivers of people with dementia who were in receipt of a specialist nursing service. The questionnaire contained measures of meaning, relationship quality, caregivers' motivations to provide care, role captivity and caregiving competence. Correlational analyses showed that higher meaning was associated with being a spousal caregiver, providing greater hours of care, higher religiosity, a better pre-caregiving and current relationship quality, higher competence, lower role captivity, higher intrinsic motivations and higher extrinsic motivations. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that variance in finding meaning was significantly predicted by high religiosity, high competence, high intrinsic motivations and low role captivity. From these findings, it is recommended that interventions should help caregivers focus on positive aspects of providing care and enhance their feelings of competence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11/2012; 27(11):1195-202. DOI:10.1002/gps.3773 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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