Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of proteins with different molecular weights and different intracellular localizations. These proteins undertake crucial functions in maintaining cell homeostasis, and therefore they have been conserved during evolution. HSP gp96 also known as glucose-regulated protein grp94, is the primary chaperone of the endoplasmatic reticulum. Gp96/grp94, because of its peptide chaperone capacity and its ability to interact actively with professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), is also endowed with crucial immunological functions such as natural adjuvant for priming innate and adaptive immunity. To make gp96 accessible to the immune system without biochemical purification and without cell lysis, we generated a secreted form of gp96. The immunological properties of secreted gp96 and its implications for vaccine in human cancer and infectious diseases will be discussed.
"Chaperones take part in the assembly, stabilization, folding, and translocation of oligomeric proteins. The expression of many HSPs is upregulated under stress conditions, nutritional deficiencies, ultraviolet irradiation, chemicals, viral infection, and ischemia-reperfusion injury [33, 34]. Chaperones, like bacterial DnaK and GroEl, have been reported to decrease recombinant protein aggregates and to assist their folding in E. coli host expression systems [35, 36]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21), rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95), and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:564285. DOI:10.1155/2014/564285 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sole, Solea senegalensis, is a common flatfish of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters with a high potential for aquaculture. However, its cultivation is hampered by high sensitivity to different stresses and several infectious diseases. Improving protection from pathogens and stressors is thus a key step in reaching a standardized production. Fish were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mimetic of bacterial infections, and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), used in aquaculture to control algae and outbreaks of infectious diseases. We employed a European flounder cDNA microarray to determine the transcriptomic responses of Senegalese sole to these exposures. Microarray analyses showed that many genes were altered in expression following both LPS and copper treatments in comparison to vehicle controls. Gene ontology analysis highlighted copper-specific induction of genes related to cellular adhesion and cell signalling, LPS-specific induction of genes related to the immune response, and a common induction of genes related to unfolded protein binding, intracellular transport/secretion and proteasome. Additionally transcripts for glutathione-S-transferases were down-regulated by LPS, and those for digestive enzymes were down-regulated by both treatments. We selected nine changing genes for absolute quantification of transcript copy numbers by real-time RT-PCR to validate microarray differential expression and to assess inter-individual variability in individual fishes. The quantitative RT-PCR data correlated highly with the microarray results. Overall, data reported provide novel insights into the molecular pathways that could mediate the immune and heavy metal stress responses in Senegalese sole and thus might have biotechnological applications in the culture of this important fish species.
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