REVIEW ARTICLE: Secreted Heat Shock Protein gp96‐Ig: An Innovative Vaccine Approach
ABSTRACT Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of proteins with different molecular weights and different intracellular localizations. These proteins undertake crucial functions in maintaining cell homeostasis, and therefore they have been conserved during evolution. HSP gp96 also known as glucose-regulated protein grp94, is the primary chaperone of the endoplasmatic reticulum. Gp96/grp94, because of its peptide chaperone capacity and its ability to interact actively with professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), is also endowed with crucial immunological functions such as natural adjuvant for priming innate and adaptive immunity. To make gp96 accessible to the immune system without biochemical purification and without cell lysis, we generated a secreted form of gp96. The immunological properties of secreted gp96 and its implications for vaccine in human cancer and infectious diseases will be discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Inducible heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70i) is a protein regulated by stress that protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Such proteins are marvellously well conserved throughout evolution, which has placed them in the spotlight for helping to understand the intriguing relationship between infection and immunity. In the presence of stress proteins, dendritic cells (DCs) will sense this alarm signal and respond by recruiting immune cells of different plumage to fit the occasion. In times of stress, melanocytes will secrete antigen-bound HSP70i to act as an alarm signal in activating DCs that comes equipped with an address of origin to drive the autoimmune response in vitiligo. Here we pose that if the autoimmune response is funnelled through HSP70i, then blocking the stress protein from activating DCs can lend new treatment opportunities for vitiligo.Experimental Dermatology 05/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21), rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95), and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:564285. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric sarcomas are relatively rare malignancies individually. As a group they are typically approached with combination chemotherapies in addition to local control. Fortunately, these malignancies have been approached through careful clinical trial collaboration to define risk groups and appropriately deliver local control measures and systemic therapies. Although local disease is typically approached with curative intent, therapy typically lasts over 6 months and has significant associated morbidities. It is more difficult to cure metastatic disease or induce sustained remissions. In this article, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the disease process and highlight recent and future cooperative group trials in osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas, and desmoid tumor as well as discuss promising therapeutic approaches such as epigenetics and immunotherapy.Current Oncology Reports 08/2014; 16(8):395. · 3.33 Impact Factor