Construction of activity duration and time management potential
ABSTRACT Two experiments examined the estimation of event duration. In Experiment 1 subjects estimated the expected duration of five everyday activities, performed the activities, and then made retrospective estimates of the duration of the activities. Expected and retrospective estimates were positively correlated, even when actual duration was taken into account suggesting both estimates may have been constructed partly from general knowledge of activity duration. Experiment 2 examined the ability to predict activity duration within a time management framework. Results indicated that subjects' accuracy in predicting the duration of a series of events was not related to time management ability as measured by the Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ). Subjects generally made overestimations, and this tendency may be a strategy that gives a feeling of control over time and helps avoid stress caused by an inability to complete tasks in the allocated time. No relationship was found between expected duration estimation ability and academic performance.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the utility of mentors in facilitating a longitudinal intervention designed to enhance the coping skills of junior national netball players (mentees). Mentors used information packs to develop five coping competencies amongst mentees including: planning and organization; goal setting; emotional intelligence; problem solving and communication. On completion of the intervention, semi-structured interviews were completed with eight mentees and eight mentors to ascertain their experiences with Mentoring. Results identified factors that helped and hindered mentoring during the five stages of Kram's (1983) behavioral model of mentoring. These included the interpersonal skills and roles adopted by mentor and mentee and opportunities for mentoring. These findings are discussed with the objective of better understanding the role of mentors in implementing coping interventions. To conclude, practical suggestions are offered in order to increase accessibility to mentors and enhance the mentor experience.
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ABSTRACT: Construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2010) contends that distance to events leads to higher level processing. In a series of studies, we examined the role of construal level in prediction of the time needed to perform a task. Estimates increased when the tasks were distant rather than close in time (Study 1), were hypothetical rather than real (Study 2), and when participants were primed to adopt an abstract rather than a concrete mindset (Study 3). As a possible explanation, it is suggested that time units are perceived as smaller as people move up in abstraction, so that more time units are needed to cover the same amount of work. In line with this, we found that people who were primed to adopt a higher level processing mode visualized an hour as shorter than those in a lower level mode, as indicated by their distance marks on a time-line (Study 4). Finally, the contraction of time units was shown to mediate the relationship between temporal distance and task duration estimates (Study 5).Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11/2011; 47(6):1037-1047. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The article reviews recent publications dealing with relationships between Collembola, carbon and nitrogen turnover. Under field conditions, correlations between Collembola, total C and N are usually weak. More pronounced interdependences can be found with microbial parameters, especially when using multivariate statistics and sampling at high temporal resolution. Many manipulation experiments have revealed strong and usually positive impacts of Collembola on N mineralisation, soil respiration, leaching of dissolved organic carbon and plant growth. The effects are mostly indirect and depend on temperature, water content, substrate quality, population density, Collembola species, plant species and in particular on interactions with other soil biota. Key mechanisms are fungal feeding, distribution of fungal propagules, root herbivory and predation on nematodes. Omnivory is probably the prevailing feeding strategy in Collembola. Finally, a tentative conceptual model for arable soils is given, explaining the differing effects of Collembola on C and N turnover by switching feeding strategies according to environmental conditions.Pedobiologia 01/2002; 46(s 3–4):234–245. · 1.67 Impact Factor