Effect of dietary taurine and lipid contents on conjugated bile acid composition and growth performance of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

Fisheries Science (Impact Factor: 0.88). 07/2008; 74(4):875 - 881. DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2008.01602.x


The effects of dietary taurine levels and lipid contents on the conjugated bile acid composition and growth performance of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated. Six types of diet (three different levels of taurine at two different levels of lipid) were fed to juveniles (average body weight, 0.04 g). Fishmeal that was washed with 70% ethanol to remove taurine was used as the sole protein source. Feeding experiments were carried out at 20°C for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiments, fish were weighed and analyzed for free amino acids in the body and the composition of the conjugated bile acids. The body weight and percent weight gain of the juveniles were improved by the dietary taurine supplementation. The taurine contents of the whole body and tissues increased with the increase of the dietary taurine contents. The conjugated bile acids in the gall bladder consisted of taurocholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, which increased with the increase of the dietary taurine level. Taurocholic acid accounted for more than 95% of the total conjugated bile acids. This indicates that taurine is the sole amino acid to conjugate bile acid in Japanese flounder.

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    • "Bile salt constituents were consistent with prior analyses of bile from other carnivorous fish (Une et al. 1991) in which the predominant conjugated bile salts were taurocholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, and glycine-conjugated and unconjugated bile salts were absent. The lack of significant differences in Cobia bile salt concentrations as dietary taurine increased is in contrast to that observed with Japanese Flounder (Kim et al. 2008), where bile salt concentration doubled when the flounders were fed diets containing 1.5% taurine. The bile of Japanese Flounder is composed of 95% taurocholate while Cobia has nearly the equivalent levels of taurocholate and taurochenodeoxycholate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-based feeds, which marine carnivores such as Cobia Rachycentron canadum are adapted to in their natural diets. Graded taurine supplementation (0, 0.5, 1.5, and 5.0%) added to a traditional fish-meal-based formulation was examined in two growth trials with Cobia: one initiated with 10-g individuals and the second initiated with 120-g individuals. During the first trial, in which growth as weight gain ranged from 123 to 139 g per fish, there was an increase in dietary taurine and a decrease in the feed conversion ratio from 1.04 to 0.99. During the second trial, in which growth ranged from 227 to 313 g gained per fish, there was no significant difference in performance characteristics between dietary treatments. Messenger RNA transcript expression levels for two of the genes involved in taurine synthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO), as well as the membrane-bound taurine transporter, TauT, were also measured at the conclusion of the second trial. Increasing dietary taurine in a diet containing 34.5% fish meal did not result in significantly different growth or production characteristics in Cobia, but did result in significantly increased taurine levels in fillet, liver, and plasma.Received July 23, 2013; accepted January 20, 2014
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