Energetic‐Particle‐Driven Instabilities in General Toroidal Configurations

Beiträge aus der Plasmaphysik (Impact Factor: 0.84). 08/2010; 50(8):708 - 712. DOI: 10.1002/ctpp.200900066
Source: OAI


Energetic-particle driven instabilities have been extensively observed in both tokamaks and stellarators. In order for such devices to ultimately succeed as D-T fusion reactors, the super-Alfvénic 3.5 Mev fusion-produced alpha particles must be sufficiently well confined. This requires the evaluation of losses from classical collisional transport processes as well as from energetic particle-driven instabilities. An important group of instabilities in this context are the discrete shear Alfvén modes, which can readily be destabilized by energetic particles (with velocities of the order of vAlfvén) through wave-particle resonances. While these modes in three-dimensional systems have many similarities to those in tokamaks, the detailed implementation of modeling tools has required development of new methods. Recent efforts in this direction will be described here, with an emphasis on reduced models (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Download full-text


Available from: D. A. Spong,
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive understanding of energetic-ion-driven global instabilities such as Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and their impact on energetic ions and bulk plasma is crucially important for tokamak and stellarator/helical plasmas and in the future for deuterium–tritium (DT) burning plasma experiments. Various types of global modes and their associated enhanced energetic ion transport are commonly observed in toroidal plasmas. Toroidicity-induced AEs and ellipticity-induced AEs, whose gaps are generated through poloidal mode coupling, are observed in both tokamak and stellarator/helical plasmas. Global AEs and reversed shear AEs, where toroidal couplings are not as dominant were also observed in those plasmas. Helicity induced AEs that exist only in 3D plasmas are observed in the large helical device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7 Advanced Stellarator plasmas. In addition, the geodesic acoustic mode that comes from plasma compressibility is destabilized by energetic ions in both tokamak and LHD plasmas. Nonlinear interaction of these modes and their influence on the confinement of the bulk plasma as well as energetic ions are observed in both plasmas.In this paper, the similarities and differences in these instabilities and their consequences for tokamak and stellarator/helical plasmas are summarized through comparison with the data sets obtained in LHD. In particular, this paper focuses on the differences caused by the rotational transform profile and the 2D or 3D geometrical structure of the plasma equilibrium. Important issues left for future study are listed.
    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 01/2011; 53(2):024008. DOI:10.1088/0741-3335/53/2/024008 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Energetic particle populations in magnetic confinement systems are sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects due to their low collisionality and long confined path lengths. Broken symmetry is present to some extent in all toroidal devices. As such effects preclude the existence of an ignorable coordinate, a fully three-dimensional analysis is necessary, beginning with the lowest order (equilibrium) magnetic fields. Three-dimensional techniques that have been extensively developed for stellarator configurations are readily adapted to other devices such as rippled tokamaks and helical states in reversed field pinches. This paper will describe the methods and present an overview of recent examples that use these techniques for the modeling of energetic particle confinement, Alfvén mode structure and fast ion instabilities.
    Physics of Plasmas 04/2011; 18(5):056109-056109-8. DOI:10.1063/1.3575626 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews various global instabilities destabilized by tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas. These global modes are toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs), which are also observed in tokamak plasmas, and helicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (HAEs) which are observed only in three-dimensional plasmas such as LHD plasmas. Moreover, reversed magnetic shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) are observed in a reversed magnetic shear (RS) plasma in the LHD, where the sign of the magnetic shear changes from positive in the plasma central region to negative in the plasma peripheral region. The RSAEs exhibit a characteristic frequency sweeping due to temporal evolution of the rotational transform profile. In the RS plasma, the energetic-ion-driven geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is also excited. The GAM interacts nonlinearly with the RSAEs and generates a multitude of frequency sweeping modes through a three-wavecoupling process. The TAEs and GAM exhibit various types of nonlinear evolution, that is, pitchfork splitting and rapid frequency chirp-up and/or chirp-down. The linear and nonlinear characteristics of these energetic-iondriven global instabilities in the LHD are compared with those observed in tokamak plasmas. TAE bursts having rapid frequency chirp-down induce redistribution and/or loss of energetic ions. Future important issues are briefly described.
    Plasma and Fusion Research 01/2013; 8:1102002-1102002. DOI:10.1585/pfr.8.1102002
Show more